Abstract

A sandwich-type sapphire/Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4/sapphire micro-laser was fabricated by tightly pressing two sapphire crystals and a Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4 microchip together, and directly depositing cavity mirrors onto the outside surfaces of the sapphire crystals. Pumped by a continuous-wave 976 nm diode laser, a 1543 nm laser with maximum output power of 1.17 W and slope efficiency of 33% with respect to incident pump power was realized in the sandwich-type micro-laser, whereas a laser with maximum output power of 0.46 W and slope efficiency of 17% was obtained in a monolithic Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4 micro-laser. Furthermore, efficient 1521 nm continuous-wave and passively Q-switched pulse lasers were also demonstrated in the sandwich-type micro-laser.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1457–1459 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Comparative study on the acousto-optic Q-switched pulse performances of 1520 and 1560 nm lasers in Er:Yb:RAl3(BO3)4 (R = Y and Lu) crystals,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18919–18926 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5-1.6 µm,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13700–13707 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, D. S. Knowles, J. A. Piper, and B. Lu, “Growth and evaluation of ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum borate as a potential self-doubling laser crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 63–69 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Comparative study on the acousto-optic Q-switched pulse performances of 1520 and 1560 nm lasers in Er:Yb:RAl3(BO3)4 (R = Y and Lu) crystals,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18919–18926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1457–1459 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[Crossref]

Beregi, E.

I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Burns, P.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Dawes, J. M.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, D. S. Knowles, J. A. Piper, and B. Lu, “Growth and evaluation of ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum borate as a potential self-doubling laser crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 63–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, D. S. Knowles, J. A. Piper, and B. Lu, “Growth and evaluation of ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum borate as a potential self-doubling laser crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 63–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eberhardt, R.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1457–1459 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[Crossref]

Foldvari, I.

I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gawlikowski, A.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, X.

Gorbachenya, K. N.

Horváth, V.

I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huang, Y.

Ivashko, A. M.

Jakubaszek, M.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. P.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kirwil, P.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kisel, V. E.

V. E. Kisel, K. N. Gorbachenya, A. S. Yasukevich, A. M. Ivashko, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Passively Q-switched microchip Er, Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 diode-pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2745–2747 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klenke, A.

Knowles, D. S.

Knysak, P.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kopczynski, K.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

V. E. Kisel, K. N. Gorbachenya, A. S. Yasukevich, A. M. Ivashko, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Passively Q-switched microchip Er, Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 diode-pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2745–2747 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leonyuk, N. I.

V. E. Kisel, K. N. Gorbachenya, A. S. Yasukevich, A. M. Ivashko, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Passively Q-switched microchip Er, Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 diode-pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2745–2747 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Lin, Y.

Lu, B.

Luo, Z.

Maltsev, V. V.

V. E. Kisel, K. N. Gorbachenya, A. S. Yasukevich, A. M. Ivashko, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Passively Q-switched microchip Er, Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 diode-pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2745–2747 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mierczyk, Z.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mlynczak, J.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Munoz F, A.

I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Muzal, M.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Natkanski, S.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peschel, T.

Piotrowski, W.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, D. S. Knowles, J. A. Piper, and B. Lu, “Growth and evaluation of ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum borate as a potential self-doubling laser crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 63–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, C.

Rothhardt, J.

Sosa, R.

I. Foldvari, E. Beregi, A. Munoz F, R. Sosa, and V. Horváth, “The energy levels of Er3+ ion in yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals,” Opt. Mater. 19(2), 241–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Su, L. B.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. L.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N. A.

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, J.

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wojtanowski, J.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yasukevich, A. S.

Zarzycka, A.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L. H.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y. Q.

D. P. Jiang, Y. Q. Zou, L. B. Su, H. L. Tang, F. Wu, L. H. Zheng, H. J. Li, and J. Xu, “A Co2+-doped alumina-rich Mg0.4Al2.4O4 spinel crystal as saturable absorber for a LD pumped Er:glass microchip laser at 1535nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zygmunt, M.

J. Mlynczak, K. Kopczynski, Z. Mierczyk, M. Zygmunt, S. Natkanski, M. Muzal, J. Wojtanowski, P. Kirwil, M. Jakubaszek, P. Knysak, W. Piotrowski, A. Zarzycka, and A. Gawlikowski, “Practical application of pulsed eye-safe microchip laser to laser rangefinders,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 21(3), 332–337 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 —efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1457–1459 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Optimization of Er, Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 895–912 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the cw 976 nm diode-end-pumped sapphire/Er:Yb:LuAB/sapphire micro-laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 1543 nm cw output power of the sandwich-type sapphire/Er:Yb:LuAB/sapphire and monolithic Er:Yb:LuAB micro-lasers versus incident pump power for OM transmission of 1.5%. Spectrum of the sandwich-type micro-laser at pump power of 5.42 W is also shown.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Beam quality factor M2 of the sandwich-type micro-laser at 1543 nm: (a) beam diameter as a function of the distance from the focusing lens at pump power of 1.84 W. (b) variation of M X 2 with pump power. Ratio of M X 2 to M Y 2 versus pump power is also shown in the inset.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 1521 nm cw output power of the sandwich-type sapphire/Er:Yb:LuAB/sapphire micro-laser versus incident pump power for OM transmission of 2.0%. Spectrum of the sandwich-type micro-laser at pump power of 5.42 W is also shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup of the passively Q-switched sandwich-type micro-laser. Pulse train and oscilloscope trace of the micro-laser at pump power of 5.42 W were shown in (b) and (c), respectively. (d) shows the beam diameter of the micro-laser as a function of the distance from the focusing lens at pump power of 5.42 W.

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