Abstract

We present the hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver and transmitter based on silicon photonic devices and 65 nm bulk CMOS interface circuits operating over 30 Gb/s with a 10−12 bit error rate (BER) for λ ~1550nm. The silicon photonic receiver, operating up to 36 Gb/s, is based on a vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetector (Ge PD) hybrid-integrated with a CMOS receiver front-end circuit (CMOS Rx IC), and exhibits high sensitivities of −11 dBm, −8 dBm, and −2 dBm for data rates of 25 Gb/s, 30 Gb/s and 36 Gb/s, respectively, at a BER of 10−12. The measured energy efficiency of the Si-photonic receiver is 2.6 pJ/bit at 25 Gb/s with an optical input power of −11 dBm, and 2.1 pJ/bit at 36 Gb/s with an optical power of −2 dBm. The hybrid-integrated silicon photonic transmitter, comprised of a depletion-type Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driver circuit (CMOS Tx IC), shows better than 5.7 dB extinction ratio (ER) for 25 Gb/s, and 3 dB ER for 36 Gb/s. The silicon photonic transmitter achieves the data transmission with less than 10−15 BER at 25 Gb/s, 10−14 BER at 28 Gb/s, and 6 x 10−13 BER with the energy efficiency of ~6 pJ/bit at 30 Gb/s.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30718–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (7)

2009 (3)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Abdalla, S.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Analui, B.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow voltage drive silicon traveling wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Baek, J.

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baks, C. W.

Balmater, E.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brandl, P.

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, R. Swoboda, P. Brandl, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, L. Vivien, and H. Zimmermann, “High Sensitivity 80 Gbps Parallel Optical Receiver for Hybrid Integrated Ge Photodiodes,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 86–88 (2011).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Capellini, G.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chern, C.-H.

T.-C. Huang, T.-W. Chung, C.-H. Chern, M.-C. Huang, C.-C. Lin, and F.-L. Hsueh, “A 28Gb/s 1pJ/b Shared-Inductor Optical Receiver with 56% Chip-Area Reduction in 28nm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC, Digest of Tech.144–145 (2014).

Chetrit, Y.

Chi, H. K.

Cho, M. H.

Choi, K. S.

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30718–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

Chung, T.-W.

T.-C. Huang, T.-W. Chung, C.-H. Chern, M.-C. Huang, C.-C. Lin, and F.-L. Hsueh, “A 28Gb/s 1pJ/b Shared-Inductor Optical Receiver with 56% Chip-Area Reduction in 28nm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC, Digest of Tech.144–145 (2014).

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
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Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
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Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10-Gbps, 5.3-mW optical transmitter and receiver circuits in 40-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(9), 2049–2067 (2012).
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Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J. F.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Dayringer, M.

De Dobbelaere, P.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Ding, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow voltage drive silicon traveling wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Dong, P.

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
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El Melhaoui, L.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, R. Swoboda, P. Brandl, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, L. Vivien, and H. Zimmermann, “High Sensitivity 80 Gbps Parallel Optical Receiver for Hybrid Integrated Ge Photodiodes,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 86–88 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fournier, M.

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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Gaberl, W.

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, R. Swoboda, P. Brandl, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, L. Vivien, and H. Zimmermann, “High Sensitivity 80 Gbps Parallel Optical Receiver for Hybrid Integrated Ge Photodiodes,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 86–88 (2011).
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Gainsley, J.

Gardes, F.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Gardes, F. Y.

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ginsburg, E.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gloeckner, S.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Goll, B.

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Green, W. M.

Grosse, P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guckenberger, D.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Harris, N.

Harrison, M.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Hartmann, J. M.

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow voltage drive silicon traveling wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsueh, F.-L.

T.-C. Huang, T.-W. Chung, C.-H. Chern, M.-C. Huang, C.-C. Lin, and F.-L. Hsueh, “A 28Gb/s 1pJ/b Shared-Inductor Optical Receiver with 56% Chip-Area Reduction in 28nm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC, Digest of Tech.144–145 (2014).

Hu, Y.

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M.-C.

T.-C. Huang, T.-W. Chung, C.-H. Chern, M.-C. Huang, C.-C. Lin, and F.-L. Hsueh, “A 28Gb/s 1pJ/b Shared-Inductor Optical Receiver with 56% Chip-Area Reduction in 28nm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC, Digest of Tech.144–145 (2014).

Huang, T.-C.

T.-C. Huang, T.-W. Chung, C.-H. Chern, M.-C. Huang, C.-C. Lin, and F.-L. Hsueh, “A 28Gb/s 1pJ/b Shared-Inductor Optical Receiver with 56% Chip-Area Reduction in 28nm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC, Digest of Tech.144–145 (2014).

Hwang, M. S.

Izhaky, N.

Jang, K.

Jang, K. S.

Jeong, D. K.

Joo, J.

Jung, W.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
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Kim, D. W.

Kim, G.

Kim, H. C.

Kim, I.

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at λ~1.55μm,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16474–16479 (2010).
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G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
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Kim, I. G.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J. K.

Kim, S.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Jang, S. A. Kim, J. H. Oh, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2310–2313 (2014).
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G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Jang, S. A. Kim, J. H. Oh, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2310–2313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30718–30725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. G. Kim, K. S. Jang, J. Joo, S. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Choi, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-performance photoreceivers based on vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors operating up to 43 Gb/s at λ~1550nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30718–30725 (2013).
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Lo, G.-Q.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

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Ma, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

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Mashanovich, G.

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J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
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Mirsaidi, S.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Moghadam, H. F.

Morini, D. M.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

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Osmond, J.

Padmaraju, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
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Paniccia, M.

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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
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J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Porte, H.

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Ren, S.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).

Rines, D.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Rouvière, M.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

Rubin, D.

Rylyakov, A. V.

Sadagopan, V.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Sahni, S.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Saito, T.

Saraswat, K. C.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schow, C. L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

Shi, J.

Shubin, I.

Sleboda, T. J.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Song, D.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

Swoboda, R.

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, R. Swoboda, P. Brandl, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, L. Vivien, and H. Zimmermann, “High Sensitivity 80 Gbps Parallel Optical Receiver for Hybrid Integrated Ge Photodiodes,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 86–88 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takemoto, T.

Teo, S.

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuji, S.

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, R. Swoboda, P. Brandl, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, L. Vivien, and H. Zimmermann, “High Sensitivity 80 Gbps Parallel Optical Receiver for Hybrid Integrated Ge Photodiodes,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 86–88 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, Y.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Welch, B.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Wöhl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Yamashita, H.

Yang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 362–364 (2008).

Yin, T.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Yuki, F.

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow voltage drive silicon traveling wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 12014–12020 (2012).

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 7–8 (2013).

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10-Gbps, 5.3-mW optical transmitter and receiver circuits in 40-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(9), 2049–2067 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Zimmermann, H.

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
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L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, R. Swoboda, P. Brandl, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Kopp, L. Vivien, and H. Zimmermann, “High Sensitivity 80 Gbps Parallel Optical Receiver for Hybrid Integrated Ge Photodiodes,” Proc. In IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV photonics, 86–88 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
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G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
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J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans. 3, 771–777 (2006).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10-Gbps, 5.3-mW optical transmitter and receiver circuits in 40-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(9), 2049–2067 (2012).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
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G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Goll, D. J. Thomson, L. Zimmermann, H. Porte, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and H. Zimmermann, “10Gb/s 5Vpp and 5.6Vpp drivers implemented together with a monolithically integrated silicon modulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:CBiCMOS,” Opt. Commun. 336, 224–234 (2015).
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X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
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X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A photographic image of a butterfly-packaged silicon photonic receiver module, and a microscopic image of the high-speed hybrid duroid/PCB submount in a housing, where a vertical-illumination Ge PD with a 30 μm-ϕ and a WGe ~3 μm is hybrid-integrated with a CMOS front-end circuit. (b) A top-view SEM image, a 52 degree-tilted cross sectional FIB SEM image, an on-chip measured I-V characteristic under illumination of λ~1550nm, an on-chip measured frequency response and eye diagrams of a fabricated vertical-illumination Ge PD. (c) A microphotograph, a measured 25 Gb/s electrical eye diagram, and a schematic diagram of the CMOS Rx IC, comprised of a transimpedance amplifier, a single-to-differential converter, a 4-stage limiting amplifier, and a output driver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The measured 20 Gb/s, 25 Gb/s, 30 Gb/s, and 36 Gb/s eye diagrams of a photoreceiver module at λ ~1.55 μm near error free condition (10−12 BER). (b) Measured BER curves of the photoreceiver at various data rates from 20 Gb/s to 36 Gb/s. Inset shows a 30 Gb/s eye-diagram of the optical transmitter used in the measurement. ER was ~8.7 dB.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The sensitivity at 10−12 BER .vs. bitrate curve. The sensitivities are −13.3 dBm, −11 dBm, −9 dBm, −8 dBm, −4.5 dBm, and −2 dBm at 20 Gb/s, 25 Gb/s, 28 Gb/s, 30 Gb/s, 34 Gb/s, and 36 Gb/s, respectively. (b) The energy efficiency was measured with the optical input power at a BER of 10−12 for each bit rate
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) A photographic image, and a microscopic image of the hybrid-integrated silicon photonic transmitter, where 1 mm-phase shifter MZM modulator is wire-bonded to a CMOS Tx IC. (b) A microscopic image of the fabricated 1 mm-phase-shifter MZM with optical transmission spectra measured with only one phase shifter biased at various voltages from 0 V to −7 V, and the on-wafer measured 30 Gb/s, and 40 Gb/s eye diagrams, driven in differential mode of 2.5 Vpp NRZ PRBS signals, at quadrature, prior to hybrid integration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) A microscopic image of the CMOS Tx IC, and a measured 30Gb/s electrical eye diagram with a HVDD~3.2 V. (b) A schematic diagram of the CMOS Tx IC and circuit implementation of a 2-tap FFE SCML driver and a pre-driver.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Eye diagrams of the hybrid-integrated silicon photonic transmitter, measured from 20 Gb/s to 36 Gb/s. (b) Eye-diagram of the MZM device driven differentially with 1.1 Vpp PPG NRZ signal, and biased at 8 dB below quadrature, prior to the hybrid integration, for comparison.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured energy efficiency versus bitrate curve, and BER versus bitrate curve of the silicon photonic transmitter. (b) BER measurement down to < 10−15 for 25 Gb/s data transmission between the silicon photonic transmitter and the 43G photoreceiver. Inset shows the 25 Gb/s eye diagram measured at a BER of 10−15.

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