Abstract

Silicon nitride waveguides with a monolayer of colloidal quantum dots embedded inside were fabricated using a low-temperature deposition process and an optimized dry etching step for the composite layers. We experimentally demonstrated the luminescence of the embedded quantum dots is preserved and the loss of these hybrid waveguide wires is as low as 2.69dB/cm at 900nm wavelength. This hybrid integration of low loss silicon nitride photonics with active emitters offers opportunities for optical sources operating over a very broad wavelength range.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (7)

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Sodagar, Z. Xia, A. H. Atabaki, and A. Adibi, “Vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18236–18248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming Si₃N₄ film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Humer, R. Guider, W. Jantsch, and T. Fromherz, “Integration, photostability and spontaneous emission rate enhancement of colloidal PbS nanocrystals for Si-based photonics at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18680–18688 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gupta and E. Waks, “Spontaneous emission enhancement and saturable absorption of colloidal quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29612–29619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khan, T. Babinec, M. W. McCutcheon, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality-factor silicon nitride nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 421–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Justo, I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and Z. Hens, “Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots: morphology and photoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

V. Srivastav, R. Pal, and H. P. Vyas, “Overview of etching technologies used for HgCdTe,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 13(3), 197–211 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. W. Coburn, “Insitu Auger electron spectroscopy of Si and SiO2 surfaces plasma etched in CF4‐H2 glow discharges,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(8), 5210–5213 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. W. Coburn and H. F. Winters, “Plasma etching—a discussion of mechanisms,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(2), 391–403 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abargues, R.

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abel, K. A.

Adibi, A.

Aharoni, A.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aimez, V.

Albert, S.

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

Babinec, T.

Baets, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banin, U.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brainis, E.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charette, P.

Chen, G.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cingolani, R.

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coburn, J. W.

J. W. Coburn, “Insitu Auger electron spectroscopy of Si and SiO2 surfaces plasma etched in CF4‐H2 glow discharges,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(8), 5210–5213 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. W. Coburn and H. F. Winters, “Plasma etching—a discussion of mechanisms,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(2), 391–403 (1979).
[Crossref]

De Geyter, B.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Giorgi, M.

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Vittorio, M.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P.

Deshpande, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dhakal, A.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du Bois, B.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Eftekhar, A. A.

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emplit, P.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Epifani, G.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Finkelstein, H.

Fiore, A.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foell, C. A.

Fromherz, T.

Fuchs, D. T.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geiregat, P.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gordillo, H.

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorin, A.

Grande, M.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grondin, E.

Guider, R.

Gupta, S.

Hassinen, A.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Helin, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hens, Z.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Justo, I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and Z. Hens, “Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots: morphology and photoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hughes, S.

Humer, M.

Jansen, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jantsch, W.

Jaouad, A.

Justo, Y.

Y. Justo, I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and Z. Hens, “Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots: morphology and photoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kee, J. S.

Khan, M.

Komorowska, K.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lambert, K.

Y. Justo, I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and Z. Hens, “Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots: morphology and photoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leyssens, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming Si₃N₄ film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Loncar, M.

Luke, K.

Martínez-Pastor, J.

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martiradonna, L.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

McCutcheon, M. W.

Merget, F.

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moreels, I.

Y. Justo, I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and Z. Hens, “Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots: morphology and photoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neutens, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olsson, Y. K.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pal, R.

V. Srivastav, R. Pal, and H. P. Vyas, “Overview of etching technologies used for HgCdTe,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 13(3), 197–211 (2005).

Park, M. K.

Passaseo, A.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peyskens, F.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pisanello, F.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

Qiao, H.

Qualtieri, A.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rapaport, R.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Romero-García, S.

Rottenberg, X.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schelew, E.

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sodagar, M.

Soltani, M.

Song, J.

Srivastav, V.

V. Srivastav, R. Pal, and H. P. Vyas, “Overview of etching technologies used for HgCdTe,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 13(3), 197–211 (2005).

Steckel, J. S.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stomeo, T.

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suárez, I.

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sundar, V. C.

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

Vyas, H. P.

V. Srivastav, R. Pal, and H. P. Vyas, “Overview of etching technologies used for HgCdTe,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 13(3), 197–211 (2005).

Waks, E.

Winters, H. F.

J. W. Coburn and H. F. Winters, “Plasma etching—a discussion of mechanisms,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(2), 391–403 (1979).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

Xia, Z.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yiying, J. Q.

Young, J. F.

Yu, M.

Zhong, F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. K. Olsson, G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, V. C. Sundar, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, “Fabrication and optical properties of polymeric waveguides containing nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4469 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. W. Coburn, “Insitu Auger electron spectroscopy of Si and SiO2 surfaces plasma etched in CF4‐H2 glow discharges,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(8), 5210–5213 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. W. Coburn and H. F. Winters, “Plasma etching—a discussion of mechanisms,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(2), 391–403 (1979).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

A. Qualtieri, F. Pisanello, M. Grande, T. Stomeo, L. Martiradonna, G. Epifani, A. Fiore, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, “Emission control of colloidal nanocrystals embedded in Si3N4 photonic crystal H1 nanocavities,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5–8), 1435–1438 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Martiradonna, T. Stomeo, M. De Giorgi, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “Nanopatterning of colloidal nanocrystals emitters dispersed in a PMMA matrix by e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1478–1481 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

Y. Justo, I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and Z. Hens, “Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots: morphology and photoluminescence,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films,” Nanotechnology 22(43), 435202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. H. Atabaki, M. Soltani, and A. Adibi, “High quality planar silicon nitride microdisk resonators for integrated photonics in the visible wavelength range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14543–14551 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Sodagar, Z. Xia, A. H. Atabaki, and A. Adibi, “Vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18236–18248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming Si₃N₄ film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, J. Song, T. Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Thermal independent silicon-nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Foell, E. Schelew, H. Qiao, K. A. Abel, S. Hughes, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and J. F. Young, “Saturation behaviour of colloidal PbSe quantum dot exciton emission coupled into silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10453–10469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Humer, R. Guider, W. Jantsch, and T. Fromherz, “Integration, photostability and spontaneous emission rate enhancement of colloidal PbS nanocrystals for Si-based photonics at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18680–18688 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gupta and E. Waks, “Spontaneous emission enhancement and saturable absorption of colloidal quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29612–29619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gorin, A. Jaouad, E. Grondin, V. Aimez, and P. Charette, “Fabrication of silicon nitride waveguides for visible-light using PECVD: a study of the effect of plasma frequency on optical properties,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13509–13516 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

V. Srivastav, R. Pal, and H. P. Vyas, “Overview of etching technologies used for HgCdTe,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 13(3), 197–211 (2005).

Other (1)

R. A. Morgan, Plasma Etching in Semiconductor Fabrication (Elsevier Press, 1985), Chap. 3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of SiN/QDs/SiN hybrid waveguide fabrication flow. (b) SEM image of the LB QD-film with the inset showing the close-packed LB QD-film under a high resolution. (c) PL of a 2cm × 2cm LB QD-film illuminated with a UV lamp.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 FIB cross-sectional images of the as-etched H-SiN/L-SiN waveguide with a designed width of 1.0μm and a total thickness of 300nm. The etching gases are (a) CF4 (40sccm), (b) CF4/O2 (40sccm/3sccm), and (c) CF4/H2 (40sccm/3sccm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 FIB cross-sectional and sidewall images of the as-etched H-SiN/L-SiN layers. The gas system is CF4/H2 with different ratios of (a, d) 40sccm/3sccm, (b, e) 60sccm/3sccm, and (c, f) 80sccm/3sccm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FIB cross-sectional and sidewall images of the as-etched H-SiN/QDs/L-SiN layers. The gases ratio of CF4/H2 in (a, b) and (c, d) are 80sccm/3sccm and 40sccm/3sccm, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 FIB cross-sectional images of ~200nm-thick, 2μm-wide waveguides for (a) H-SiN/L-SiN and (b) H-SiN/QDs/L-SiN structures on 3μm oxide box. (c) Normalized PL intensity of QDs on the top of SiN and embedded in SiN waveguides, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Waveguide losses at different widths of single deposit H-SiN and L-SiN layer in (a) and H-SiN/L-SiN and H-SiN/QDs/L-SiN stacked layers in (b), obtained by linearly fitting waveguide-length dependent transmission. The insets in (a) and (b) show the transmissions of 2μm-wide waveguide at different lengths together with the corresponding linear fits of the slopes for different types of waveguide, indicating a very small discrepancy between the measured and fitted results.

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