Abstract

A novel evanescent wave biosensor based on modal interaction between the fundamental mode and the second order mode is proposed and numerically demonstrated. By taking advantage of their symmetries, it is possible to design a device where only the fundamental and the second order modes can propagate, without excitation of the first order mode. With this selection of modes it is possible to achieve a high sensitivity behavior in the biosensor configuration, due to the strong interaction between the evanescent field and the outer surface as compared to previous evanescent wave-based biosensor designs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
  3. K. E. Zinoviev, A. González-guerrero, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated bimodal waveguide interferometric biosensor for label-free analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(13), 1926–1930 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Bruck and R. Hainberger, “Sensitivity and design of grating-assisted bimodal interferometers for integrated optical biosensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32344–32352 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Mrozowski, Guided Electromagnetic Waves: Properties and Analysis (Research Studies, 1997).
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  10. W. P. Huang and J. Mu, “Complex coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19134–19152 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. O. P. Parida and N. Bhat, ”Characterization of optical properties of SU-8 and fabrication of optical components,” in ICOP 2009–International Conference on Optics and Photonics, PS3.E.8, Cahndigarh, India, 30 October–1 November 2009.

2014 (1)

2012 (4)

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2003 (1)

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhat, N.

O. P. Parida and N. Bhat, ”Characterization of optical properties of SU-8 and fabrication of optical components,” in ICOP 2009–International Conference on Optics and Photonics, PS3.E.8, Cahndigarh, India, 30 October–1 November 2009.

Bruck, R.

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Charlton, M.

Dante, S.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domínguez, C.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Zinoviev, A. González-guerrero, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated bimodal waveguide interferometric biosensor for label-free analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(13), 1926–1930 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Duval, D.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fernández, L. J.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

González-Guerrero, A.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Zinoviev, A. González-guerrero, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated bimodal waveguide interferometric biosensor for label-free analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(13), 1926–1930 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hainberger, R.

Hakalahti, L.

Heinonen, E.

Hiltunen, J.

Hiltunen, M.

Huang, W. P.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton, 2008).

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton, 2008).

Karioja, P.

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lechuga, L. M.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. E. Zinoviev, A. González-guerrero, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated bimodal waveguide interferometric biosensor for label-free analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(13), 1926–1930 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liedert, C.

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton, 2008).

Monge, R.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montoya, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Mrozowski, M.

M. Mrozowski, Guided Electromagnetic Waves: Properties and Analysis (Research Studies, 1997).

Mu, J.

Myllylä, R.

Osmond, J.

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parida, O. P.

O. P. Parida and N. Bhat, ”Characterization of optical properties of SU-8 and fabrication of optical components,” in ICOP 2009–International Conference on Optics and Photonics, PS3.E.8, Cahndigarh, India, 30 October–1 November 2009.

Pearce, S.

Petäjä, J.

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Sepulveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Stenberg, P.

Vahimaa, P.

Wang, M.

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton, 2008).

Zinoviev, K. E

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinoviev, K. E.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 14(8), 907–912 (2003).

Lab Chip (1)

D. Duval, A. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, J. Osmond, R. Monge, L. J. Fernández, K. E Zinoviev, C. Domínguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Nanophotonic lab-on-a-chip platforms including novel bimodal interferometers, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Lab Chip 12(11), 1987–1994 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

O. P. Parida and N. Bhat, ”Characterization of optical properties of SU-8 and fabrication of optical components,” in ICOP 2009–International Conference on Optics and Photonics, PS3.E.8, Cahndigarh, India, 30 October–1 November 2009.

M. Mrozowski, Guided Electromagnetic Waves: Properties and Analysis (Research Studies, 1997).

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Multimode interferometric biosensor scheme. (a) Three-dimensional view of the multimode interferometer and its sensing area. (b) Side view of the waveguide coupling region. (c) Top view showing the region where high-order modes are excited and interact with the bioactive region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Modal curves for a waveguide of 500 nm thickness with cladding of (a) PDMS polymer, (b) water. (c) Cut-off relation between width and height in the polymer waveguide at the sensing area.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variation of the coupling coefficient and sensitivity as function of the multimode waveguide width. (a) Trimodal case with single-mode waveguide width 610 nm. (b) Bimodal case with single-mode waveguide width 610 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between the proposed and current state-of-the-art devices for the (a) bulk and (b) surface sensitivities.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Effects of misalignment and losses in the biosensors. (a) Effects of offset error in the coupling coefficients. (b) Trimodal transfer function |d|2 for TE polarization under offset error. (c) Effects of losses in the transfer function for TE polarization.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected dimensions for each proposed device.

Equations (12)

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( β m 2 β n 2 ) S e n × h m d s ^ = 0
E = n = 0 N c n e n + radiation modes
c n = S E × h n d s ^ S e n × h n d s ^
n = 0 N c n e n e j β n L = d E + radiation modes
d = n = 0 N c n e j β n L S e n × H d s ^ S E n × H d s ^
η bulk = ( Δ n eff ) n clad
Δ n eff = n eff , i n eff , 0
Δ ϕ = 2 π Δ n eff L λ
S bulk = ( Δ ϕ ) n clad = 2 π L λ η bulk
η surf = ( Δ n eff ) b
S surf = ( Δ ϕ ) b = 2 π L λ η surf
α i = 1 δ i = 2 π λ n eff , i 2 n clad 2

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