Abstract

We present a novel waveguide coupling scheme where a germanium diode grown via rapid melt growth is wrapped around a silicon waveguide. A 4 fF PIN photodiode is demonstrated with 0.95 A/W responsivity at 1550 nm, 6 nA dark current, and nearly 9 GHz bandwidth. Devices with shorter intrinsic region exhibit higher bandwidth (30 GHz) and slightly lower responsivity (0.7 A/W). An NPN phototransistor is also demonstrated using the same design with 14 GHz fT.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current

Christopher T. DeRose, Douglas C. Trotter, William A. Zortman, Andrew L. Starbuck, Moz Fisher, Michael R. Watts, and Paul S. Davids
Opt. Express 19(25) 24897-24904 (2011)

High-performance waveguide-integrated germanium PIN photodiodes for optical communication applications [Invited]

Léopold Virot, Laurent Vivien, Jean-Marc Fédéli, Yann Bogumilowicz, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Frédéric Bœuf, Paul Crozat, Delphine Marris-Morini, and Eric Cassan
Photon. Res. 1(3) 140-147 (2013)

High responsivity SiGe heterojunction phototransistor on silicon photonics platform

V. Sorianello, G. De Angelis, A. De Iacovo, L. Colace, S. Faralli, and M. Romagnoli
Opt. Express 23(22) 28163-28169 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and I. A. Young, “Device scaling considerations for nanophotonic CMOS global interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Liu, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, K. Ma, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “MOSFETs and high-speed photodetectors on Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated using rapid melt growth,” Electron Devices Meeting, 2004. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International 1001–1004 (2004).
  17. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM Germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Dark current reduction of Ge photodetector by GeO2 surface passivation and gas-phase doping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8718–8725 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. L. Claeys and E. Simoen, Germanium-Based Technologies (Elsevier, 2007).
  23. S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007).
  24. K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and I. A. Young, “Device scaling considerations for nanophotonic CMOS global interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200109 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asano, K.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM Germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bedell, S. W.

Bergman, K.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bokor, J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

Chen, K.-H.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, S.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-T.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chetrit, Y.

Cohen, R.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Davids, P. S.

Deal, M.

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C. T.

Dong, P.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, N.-N.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fisher, M.

Fong, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Going, R. W.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

Griffin, P. B.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hisamoto, D.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Hu, C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kedzierski, J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

King, T.-J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

King Liu, T.-J.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kopp, C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kung, C.-C.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, M.-C. M.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lipson, M.

S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and I. A. Young, “Device scaling considerations for nanophotonic CMOS global interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200109 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.-D.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Loo, J.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
[Crossref]

Magill, P.

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and I. A. Young, “Device scaling considerations for nanophotonic CMOS global interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morii, K.

Morse, M. M.

Na, N.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, Y.

Nishi, Y.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Plummer, J.

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[Crossref]

Plummer, J. D.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Polzer, A.

Poon, A.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rice, P. M.

Rubin, D.

Sarid, G.

Shafiiha, R.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A. L.

Sugiyama, M.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takagi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Takeuchi, H.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thareja, G.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Topuria, T.

Trotter, D. C.

Tseng, C.-K.

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Virot, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM Germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

Wong, S. S.

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM Germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yang, Y.

Yin, T.

Young, I. A.

S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and I. A. Young, “Device scaling considerations for nanophotonic CMOS global interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.-B.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, D.

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low-voltage and high-responsivity germanium bipolar phototransistor for optical detections in the near-infrared regime,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Feng, G. Thareja, M. Kobayashi, S. Chen, A. Poon, Y. Bai, P. B. Griffin, S. S. Wong, Y. Nishi, and J. D. Plummer, “High-performance gate-all-around GeOI p-MOSFETs fabricated by rapid melt growth using plasma nitridation and ALD gate dielectric and self-aligned NiGe contacts,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 805–807 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. King Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate PhotoMOSFET integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8201607 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and I. A. Young, “Device scaling considerations for nanophotonic CMOS global interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200109 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM Germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Dark current reduction of Ge photodetector by GeO2 surface passivation and gas-phase doping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8718–8725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C.-K. Tseng, W.-T. Chen, K.-H. Chen, H.-D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M.-C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

C. L. Claeys and E. Simoen, Germanium-Based Technologies (Elsevier, 2007).

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007).

Y. Liu, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, K. Ma, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “MOSFETs and high-speed photodetectors on Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated using rapid melt growth,” Electron Devices Meeting, 2004. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International 1001–1004 (2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 3D schematic of the wrap-around photodiode design. (b) A cross-section of the wrap-around photodiode showing the lateral doping scheme. (c) Top-down view of the photodiode (not-to-scale) showing the silicon seed for RMG, the cut in the Ge performed to isolate the diode from the seed, and the amount of waveguide overlap.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section of a completed photodiode. The image has had different sections of the device highlighted for clarity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Current vs bias for a 16 µm overlap length photodiode showing dark current and differing amounts of photocurrent with different optical powers. (b) Extracted responsivity vs bias for the same diode as well as the measured capacitance.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) FDTD simulation of the wrap-around structure. (b) Responsivity at 1550 nm versus waveguide overlap length for both measured photodiode devices and simulated devices.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The measured 3dB bandwidth of three photodiodes with differing i-Ge with and (b) their respective S21 spectra at highest measured bandwidth, which include a 5-point box smooth.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) 3D schematic of the wrap-around NPN phototransistor with (b) cross section showing the doping scheme and emitter/collector contacts. The base is left floating.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Shows the photo I-V response of an 8µm phototransistor and (b) shows the extracted responsivity and photocurrent gain.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) h21 frequency response of the 8µm NPN phototransistor measured with a 3V bias as a function of optical input power. (b) Measured fT as a function of optical input power and collector-emitter bias.

Metrics