Abstract

Using programmable aperture to modulate spatial-angular information of light field is well-known in computational photography and microscopy. Inspired by this concept, we report a digital eyeglass design that adaptively modulates light field entering human eyes. The main hardware includes a transparent liquid crystal display (LCD) and a mini-camera. The device analyzes the spatial-angular information of the camera image in real time and subsequently sends a command to form a certain pattern on the LCD. We show that, the eyeglass prototype can adaptively reduce light transmission from bright sources by ~80% and retain transparency to other dim objects meanwhile. One application of the reported device is to reduce discomforting glare caused by vehicle headlamps. To this end, we report the preliminary result of using the reported device in a road test. The reported device may also find applications in military operations (sniper scope), laser counter measure, STEM education, and enhancing visual contrast for visually impaired patients and elderly people with low vision.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Zomet and S. K. Nayar, “Lensless imaging with a controllable aperture,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on, (IEEE, 2006), 339–346.
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Bando, B.-Y. Chen, and T. Nishita, “Extracting depth and matte using a color-filtered aperture,” in ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), (ACM, 2008), 134.
  4. C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Guo, Z. Bian, S. Dong, P. Nanda, Y. M. Wang, and G. Zheng, “Microscopy illumination engineering using a low-cost liquid crystal display,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 574–579 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  6. D. Reddy, J. Bai, and R. Ramamoorthi, “External mask based depth and light field camera,” in Computer Vision Workshops (ICCVW),2013IEEE International Conference on, (IEEE, 2013), 37–44.
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Bullough, N. Skinner, R. Pysar, L. Radetsky, A. Smith, and M. Rea, “Nighttime glare and driving performance: Research findings,” Technical Report, Department of Transpotation (2008).
  8. R. H. Hemion, “A preliminary cost-benefit study of headlight glare reduction,” Technical Report, Department of Transpotation (1969).

2015 (1)

2008 (1)

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bian, Z.

Chen, H. H.

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dong, S.

Guo, K.

Liang, C.-K.

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-H.

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mohan, A.

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nanda, P.

Raskar, R.

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tumblin, J.

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Veeraraghavan, A.

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. M.

Wong, B.-Y.

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

ACM Trans. Graph. (2)

C.-K. Liang, T.-H. Lin, B.-Y. Wong, C. Liu, and H. H. Chen, “Programmable aperture photography: multiplexed light field acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 27(3), 55 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Veeraraghavan, R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, A. Mohan, and J. Tumblin, “Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 69 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

A. Zomet and S. K. Nayar, “Lensless imaging with a controllable aperture,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on, (IEEE, 2006), 339–346.
[Crossref]

Y. Bando, B.-Y. Chen, and T. Nishita, “Extracting depth and matte using a color-filtered aperture,” in ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), (ACM, 2008), 134.

D. Reddy, J. Bai, and R. Ramamoorthi, “External mask based depth and light field camera,” in Computer Vision Workshops (ICCVW),2013IEEE International Conference on, (IEEE, 2013), 37–44.
[Crossref]

J. Bullough, N. Skinner, R. Pysar, L. Radetsky, A. Smith, and M. Rea, “Nighttime glare and driving performance: Research findings,” Technical Report, Department of Transpotation (2008).

R. H. Hemion, “A preliminary cost-benefit study of headlight glare reduction,” Technical Report, Department of Transpotation (1969).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: MOV (3557 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1104 KB)     
» Media 3: MP4 (824 KB)     
» Media 4: MP4 (3786 KB)     
» Media 5: MP4 (6700 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (3497 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic and prototype setup of the LCD-based digital eyeglass. (a) We use a mini-camera to identify the incident angles of bright light sources and place two liquid crystal displays in front of two eyes. Based on the incident angles of light sources, we set certain patterns on the displays to selectively reduce light transmission from those sources. The displays, on the other hand, remain transparent to dim objects. (b) The LCD-based digital eyeglass prototype.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental verification of the working principle of reported eyeglass. (a) Schematic of the experiment. We used a camera to serve as an eye to capture images of the scene. (b) The capture images with and without setting a dark pattern on the display. An 8 pixel by 8 pixel dark pattern on the liquid crystal display results in 80% light transmission reduction. Also refer to Media 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization of the reported device. (a1)-(a4) The captured images by setting different patterns on the display, with the size ranging from 0 pixel by 0 pixel to 12 pixels by 12 pixels. (b1) The intensity line traces across the captured images. (b2) The light reduction percentage as a function of the pattern size. The reported device is able to reduce ~80% light transmission from the bright sources. (b3) The light reduction percentage as a function of the incident angles.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Demonstration of the reported device for reducing light transmission from bright light sources. (a) and (b) Captured images with and without showing the dark pattern on the display (Media 2). (b) The reported device may find applications in sniper scope. (c) Mode 3 operation of the reported device (Media 3).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode 3 operation using the glass prototype. We turned off the left display and used it as a reference. Also refer to Media 4 and Media 5.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Preliminary road test. (a) We mounted the setup in a car and turned off the left half of the display to demonstrate the operation of the reported device. (b1) Light from headlamps is reduced by showing a pattern on the display (the dark pattern is enclosed by the red dash line). (b2) Light transmission from the headlamp increases when the oncoming car exits the dark pattern region. Also refer to Media 6 for more details.

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