Abstract

We investigate the impact of in-line amplifier noise in transmission systems amplified by two-mode phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) and present the first experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) mitigation in a modulation format independent PSA-amplified transmission system. The NLPN mitigation capability is attributed to the correlated noise on the signal and idler waves at the input of the transmission span. We study a single-span system with noise loading in the transmitter but the results are expected to be applicable also in multi-span systems. The experimental investigation is supported by numerical simulations showing excellent agreement with the experiments. In addition to demonstrating NLPN mitigation we also present a record high sensitivity receiver, enabled by low-noise PSA-amplification, requiring only 4.1 photons per bit to obtain a bit error ratio (BER) of 1 × 103 with 10 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) data.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (6)

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, Y.-K. Huang, S. Zhang, P. R. Prucnal, and T. Wang, “Demonstration of digital phase-sensitive boosting to extend signal reach for long-haul WDM systems using optical phase-conjugated copy,” Opt. Express 21, 5099–5106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong and S. Radic, “Low-noise optical amplification and signal processing in parametric devices,” Advances in Optics and Photonics 5, 318–384 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, Y. Miyamoto, and H. Takenouchi, “Multi-span transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” Opt. Express 21, 18170–18177 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bononi, P. Serena, and N. Rossi, “Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion-managed links with various modulation formats,” Optical Fiber Technology 16, 73–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 28, 179–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416–3425 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[Crossref]

Agrell, E.

E. Agrell, “Nonlinear fiber capacity,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.4.D.8, 2013.

Alic, N.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, E. Temprana, B. P.-P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Nonlinearity cancellation in fiber optic links based on frequency referenced carriers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 32, 2690–2698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

B. Corcoran, R. Malik, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise beating in hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 22, 5762–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Malik, A. Kumpera, S. L. I. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Optical signal to noise ratio improvement through unbalanced noise beating in phase-sensitive parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 10477–10486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, T. A. Eriksson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified transmission links for improved sensitivity and nonlinearity tolerance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 710–721 (2014).

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Long-haul (3465 km) transmission of a 10 GBd QPSK signal with low noise phase-sensitive in-line amplification,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper PD.2.2, 2014.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinear impairments on QPSK data in phase-sensitive amplified links,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.3.A.1, 2013.

Asobe, M.

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bononi, A.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, and N. Rossi, “Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion-managed links with various modulation formats,” Optical Fiber Technology 16, 73–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, R. Malik, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise beating in hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 22, 5762–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, T. A. Eriksson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified transmission links for improved sensitivity and nonlinearity tolerance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 710–721 (2014).

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinear impairments on QPSK data in phase-sensitive amplified links,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.3.A.1, 2013.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

Cotter, D.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dinu, M.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Ellis, A. D.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, T. A.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fisher, R. A.

Foschini, G. J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Goebel, B.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, K.-P.

Hu, H.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Huang, Y.-K.

Ip, E.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416–3425 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jopson, R. M.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Kahn, J. M.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416–3425 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kakande, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, T. A. Eriksson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified transmission links for improved sensitivity and nonlinearity tolerance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 710–721 (2014).

R. Malik, A. Kumpera, S. L. I. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Optical signal to noise ratio improvement through unbalanced noise beating in phase-sensitive parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 10477–10486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, R. Malik, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise beating in hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 22, 5762–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinear impairments on QPSK data in phase-sensitive amplified links,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.3.A.1, 2013.

S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Long-haul (3465 km) transmission of a 10 GBd QPSK signal with low noise phase-sensitive in-line amplification,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper PD.2.2, 2014.

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K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
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Kramer, G.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumpera, A.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, E. Temprana, B. P.-P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Nonlinearity cancellation in fiber optic links based on frequency referenced carriers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 32, 2690–2698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Lundström, C.

B. Corcoran, R. Malik, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise beating in hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 22, 5762–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, T. A. Eriksson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified transmission links for improved sensitivity and nonlinearity tolerance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 710–721 (2014).

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Long-haul (3465 km) transmission of a 10 GBd QPSK signal with low noise phase-sensitive in-line amplification,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper PD.2.2, 2014.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinear impairments on QPSK data in phase-sensitive amplified links,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.3.A.1, 2013.

Malik, R.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, “Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” Opt. Express 12, 5037–5066 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Minzioni, P.

P. Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 28, 179–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, Y.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Montoliu, M.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Myslivets, E.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, E. Temprana, B. P.-P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Nonlinearity cancellation in fiber optic links based on frequency referenced carriers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 32, 2690–2698 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Olsson, S. L. I.

B. Corcoran, R. Malik, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise beating in hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 22, 5762–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Malik, A. Kumpera, S. L. I. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Optical signal to noise ratio improvement through unbalanced noise beating in phase-sensitive parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 10477–10486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, T. A. Eriksson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified transmission links for improved sensitivity and nonlinearity tolerance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 710–721 (2014).

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinear impairments on QPSK data in phase-sensitive amplified links,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.3.A.1, 2013.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Long-haul (3465 km) transmission of a 10 GBd QPSK signal with low noise phase-sensitive in-line amplification,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper PD.2.2, 2014.

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phelan, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prucnal, P. R.

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, E. Temprana, B. P.-P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Nonlinearity cancellation in fiber optic links based on frequency referenced carriers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 32, 2690–2698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong and S. Radic, “Low-noise optical amplification and signal processing in parametric devices,” Advances in Optics and Photonics 5, 318–384 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, “Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” Opt. Express 12, 5037–5066 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Raymer, M. G.

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rossi, N.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, and N. Rossi, “Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion-managed links with various modulation formats,” Optical Fiber Technology 16, 73–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

Serena, P.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, and N. Rossi, “Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion-managed links with various modulation formats,” Optical Fiber Technology 16, 73–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suydam, B. R.

Sygletos, S.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tadanaga, O.

Takara, H.

Takenouchi, H.

Temprana, E.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, E. Temprana, B. P.-P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Nonlinearity cancellation in fiber optic links based on frequency referenced carriers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 32, 2690–2698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R. W.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong and S. Radic, “Low-noise optical amplification and signal processing in parametric devices,” Advances in Optics and Photonics 5, 318–384 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsukamoto, S.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
[Crossref]

Umeki, T.

Vasilyev, M.

Wang, T.

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xie, C.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

Yevick, D.

Zhang, S.

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A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
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Advances in Optics and Photonics (1)

Z. Tong and S. Radic, “Low-noise optical amplification and signal processing in parametric devices,” Advances in Optics and Photonics 5, 318–384 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fiber and Integrated Optics (1)

P. Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 28, 179–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416–3425 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, E. Temprana, B. P.-P. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Nonlinearity cancellation in fiber optic links based on frequency referenced carriers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 32, 2690–2698 (2014).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Photon. (3)

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon. 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nature Photon. 5, 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nature Photon. 4, 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, Y. Miyamoto, and H. Takenouchi, “Multi-span transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” Opt. Express 21, 18170–18177 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, Y. Miyamoto, and H. Takenouchi, “First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express 22, 2473–2482 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, C. J. McKinstrie, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of optical fiber transmission links that use non-degenerate cascaded phasesensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 15426–15439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, Y.-K. Huang, S. Zhang, P. R. Prucnal, and T. Wang, “Demonstration of digital phase-sensitive boosting to extend signal reach for long-haul WDM systems using optical phase-conjugated copy,” Opt. Express 21, 5099–5106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, “Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” Opt. Express 12, 5037–5066 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, R. Malik, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise beating in hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 22, 5762–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Malik, A. Kumpera, S. L. I. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Optical signal to noise ratio improvement through unbalanced noise beating in phase-sensitive parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22, 10477–10486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optical Fiber Technology (1)

A. Bononi, P. Serena, and N. Rossi, “Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion-managed links with various modulation formats,” Optical Fiber Technology 16, 73–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

S. L. I. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper Th.2.F.1, 2012.

E. Agrell, “Nonlinear fiber capacity,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.4.D.8, 2013.

S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Long-haul (3465 km) transmission of a 10 GBd QPSK signal with low noise phase-sensitive in-line amplification,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper PD.2.2, 2014.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Mitigation of nonlinear impairments on QPSK data in phase-sensitive amplified links,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)Paper We.3.A.1, 2013.

H. Hu, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, C. Xie, M. Montoliu, S. Randel, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)Paper M3C.2, 2014.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Output OSNR difference between PSA-amplification, with correlated or uncorrelated excess noise at the amplifier input, and PIA-amplification versus input signal power with 20 dB input OSNR. The dashed line represents the difference between the case of having uncorrelated and correlated excess noise.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulation model for a PIA-amplified transmission system. Acronyms are explained in the text.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation model for a PSA-amplified transmission system with either correlated or uncorrelated excess noise on the signal and idler waves at the transmission span input. Acronyms are explained in the text.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated signal wave constellation diagrams with −37 dBm received power and 20 dB OSNR at the transmission span input.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated BER versus launch power with the received power kept fixed at a value giving a BER of about 1×10−4 at 0 dB launch power. The OSNR at the transmission span input was 20 dB.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated signal wave constellation diagrams corresponding to the 16 dBm launch power point in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup used for demonstrating and investigating NLPN mitigation in PSA-amplified transmission systems. Acronyms are explained in the text.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of experimentally measured B2B sensitivity for the PIA- and PSA-amplified systems with corresponding analytical curves.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured BER versus received signal power with 20 dB OSNR at the transmission span input and 0 dBm launch power corresponding to linear propagation.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured signal wave constellation diagrams with −37.0 dBm received power and 20 dB OSNR at the transmission span input.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Measured BER versus launch power with the received power kept fixed at a value giving a BER of 4 × 10−5 at 0 dBm launch power. The OSNR at the transmission span input was 20 dB.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Measured signal wave constellation diagrams corresponding to the 16 dBm launch power point in Fig. 11.

Equations (4)

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[ B s B i * ] = [ μ v v * μ * ] [ A s + n exc , s + n vac , s A i * + n exc , i * + n vac , i * ] ,
B s = μ A s + v A i * + μ n exc , s + v n exc , i * + μ n vac , s + v n vac , i *
B i = v A s * + μ A i + v n exc , s * + μ n exc , i + v n vac , s * + μ n vac , i .
OSNR PSA , c OSNR PIA = 4 + 2 P exc / P vac 1 + 2 P exc / P vac and OSNR PSA , uc OSNR PIA = 4 + 2 P exc / P vac 1 + P exc / P vac .

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