Abstract

We investigated the room-temperature Terahertz (THz) response as saturable absorber of turbostratic multilayer graphene grown on the carbon-face of silicon carbide. By employing an open-aperture z-scan method and a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser as source, a 10% enhancement of transparency is observed. The saturation intensity is several W/cm2, mostly attributed to the Pauli blocking effect in the intrinsic graphene layers. A visible increase of the modulation depth as a function of the number of graphene sheets was recorded as consequence of the low nonsaturable losses. The latter in turn revealed that crystalline disorder is the main limitation to larger modulations, demonstrating that the THz nonlinear absorption properties of turbostratic graphene can be engineered via a proper control of the crystalline disorder and the layers number.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  34. H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
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    [Crossref]
  36. H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device Concepts for Graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 130–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Terahertz radiative coupling and damping in multilayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 16(1), 013027 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Paiella, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers: going ultrafast,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, A. A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V. Mitin, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz lasers based on optically pumped multiple graphene structures with slotline and dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 054505 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, and X. L. Lei, “Hot-electron transport in graphene driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1266–1269 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (7)

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, X. L. Lei, and C. M. Wang, “Nonlinear DC transport in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(30), 305302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A29–A34 (2009).

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 91–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Faugeras, A. Nerrière, M. Potemski, A. Mahmood, E. Dujardin, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Few layer graphene on SiC, pyrolitic graphite and graphene: a Raman scattering study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011914 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

P. Mallet, F. Varchon, C. Naud, L. Magaud, C. Berger, and J.-Y. Veuillen, “Electron states of mono- and bilayer graphene on SiC probed by scanning-tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 041403 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Achete, C. A.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, W. S.

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, and X. L. Lei, “Hot-electron transport in graphene driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1266–1269 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, X. L. Lei, and C. M. Wang, “Nonlinear DC transport in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(30), 305302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

Belyanin, A.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berger, C.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Faugeras, A. Nerrière, M. Potemski, A. Mahmood, E. Dujardin, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Few layer graphene on SiC, pyrolitic graphite and graphene: a Raman scattering study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011914 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mallet, F. Varchon, C. Naud, L. Magaud, C. Berger, and J.-Y. Veuillen, “Electron states of mono- and bilayer graphene on SiC probed by scanning-tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 041403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bertran, F.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bol, A. A.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bowlan, P.

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Terahertz radiative coupling and damping in multilayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 16(1), 013027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brandt, N. C.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breusing, M.

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cançado, L. G.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Capaz, R. B.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalié, P.

Chandrashekhar, M.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chiang, S.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Coletti, C.

C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
[Crossref]

Conrad, E. H.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corzine, S.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dawlaty, J.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Heer, W. A.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Faugeras, A. Nerrière, M. Potemski, A. Mahmood, E. Dujardin, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Few layer graphene on SiC, pyrolitic graphite and graphene: a Raman scattering study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011914 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S. S.

Diehl, L.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dimitrakopoulos, C. D.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Divin, C.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubinov, A. A.

V. Ryzhii, A. A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V. Mitin, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz lasers based on optically pumped multiple graphene structures with slotline and dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 054505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dujardin, E.

C. Faugeras, A. Nerrière, M. Potemski, A. Mahmood, E. Dujardin, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Few layer graphene on SiC, pyrolitic graphite and graphene: a Raman scattering study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Terahertz radiative coupling and damping in multilayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 16(1), 013027 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enriquez, H.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Farhat, H.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farmer, D. B.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faugeras, C.

C. Faugeras, A. Nerrière, M. Potemski, A. Mahmood, E. Dujardin, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Few layer graphene on SiC, pyrolitic graphite and graphene: a Raman scattering study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, E. H.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

First, P. N.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, J. R.

Frewin, C. L.

C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

George, P. A.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, A.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Göttfert, F.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.-J.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hebling, J.

Helm, M.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hicks, J.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A29–A34 (2009).

Höfler, G.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, A. L.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hübers, H.-W.

Hwang, H. Y.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A29–A34 (2009).

Ji, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jirauschek, C.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jorio, A.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jukam, N.

Kärtner, F. X.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S. P.

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20855–20862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

Knorr, A.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, R.

Kong, J.

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulmala, T. S.

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M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
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Lin, Y.-M.

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W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, and X. L. Lei, “Hot-electron transport in graphene driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1266–1269 (2010).
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L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
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Madéo, J.

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Mahmood, A.

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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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Maysonnave, J.

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P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
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P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Terahertz radiative coupling and damping in multilayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 16(1), 013027 (2014).
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C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
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Ritchie, D. A.

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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Rungsawang, R.

Ryzhii, M.

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083114 (2007).
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V. Ryzhii, A. A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V. Mitin, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz lasers based on optically pumped multiple graphene structures with slotline and dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 054505 (2010).
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V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083114 (2007).
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C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
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V. Ryzhii, A. A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V. Mitin, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz lasers based on optically pumped multiple graphene structures with slotline and dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 054505 (2010).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starke, U.

C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
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L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
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Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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P. Mallet, F. Varchon, C. Naud, L. Magaud, C. Berger, and J.-Y. Veuillen, “Electron states of mono- and bilayer graphene on SiC probed by scanning-tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 041403 (2007).
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P. Mallet, F. Varchon, C. Naud, L. Magaud, C. Berger, and J.-Y. Veuillen, “Electron states of mono- and bilayer graphene on SiC probed by scanning-tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 041403 (2007).
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Vizzini, S.

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. M.

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, X. L. Lei, and C. M. Wang, “Nonlinear DC transport in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(30), 305302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wee, A. T. S.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

Winnerl, S.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winzer, T.

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Terahertz radiative coupling and damping in multilayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 16(1), 013027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z. K.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, K.-L.

Yeom, D. I.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zheng, Z.

Zhu, W.

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

Y. Wu, D. B. Farmer, W. Zhu, S.-J. Han, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. A. Bol, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2610–2616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Faugeras, A. Nerrière, M. Potemski, A. Mahmood, E. Dujardin, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Few layer graphene on SiC, pyrolitic graphite and graphene: a Raman scattering study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011914 (2008).
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M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Tredicucci and M. S. Vitiello, “Device Concepts for Graphene-based terahertz photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 130–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 91–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. Ryzhii, M. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Negative dynamic conductivity of graphene with optical pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083114 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, A. A. Dubinov, T. Otsuji, V. Mitin, and M. S. Shur, “Terahertz lasers based on optically pumped multiple graphene structures with slotline and dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 054505 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, H. Farhat, A. L. Hsu, J. Kong, and K. A. Nelson, “Nonlinear THz conductivity dynamics in p-type CVD-grown graphene,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(49), 15819–15824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, X. L. Lei, and C. M. Wang, “Nonlinear DC transport in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(30), 305302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Winnerl, F. Göttfert, M. Mittendorff, H. Schneider, M. Helm, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Orlita, M. Potemski, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, “Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(5), 054202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Forum (1)

C. L. Frewin, C. Coletti, C. Riedl, U. Starke, and S. E. Saddow, “A Comprehensive study of hydrogen etching on the major SiC polytypes and crystal orientations,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 589–592 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, E. H. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3190–3196 (2011).
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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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R. Paiella, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers: going ultrafast,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 253–255 (2011).
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S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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New J. Phys. (1)

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Terahertz radiative coupling and damping in multilayer graphene,” New J. Phys. 16(1), 013027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

W. S. Bao, S. Y. Liu, and X. L. Lei, “Hot-electron transport in graphene driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1266–1269 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Mallet, F. Varchon, C. Naud, L. Magaud, C. Berger, and J.-Y. Veuillen, “Electron states of mono- and bilayer graphene on SiC probed by scanning-tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 041403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Sprinkle, D. Siegel, Y. Hu, J. Hicks, A. Tejeda, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, P. Le Fèvre, F. Bertran, S. Vizzini, H. Enriquez, S. Chiang, P. Soukiassian, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, A. Lanzara, and E. H. Conrad, “First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(22), 226803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(8), 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Representative Raman spectra measured at a pumping wavelength of 532 nm for the sample 1 (a), 2 (b), 3 (c). The red solid lines are single Lorentzian fits.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Z-scan traces of the sample 1 (a), 2 (b), 3 (c) (solid dots) and of the substrate (empty dots). The red lines are the fit curves assuming the simple two-level saturable absorber model.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Saturation intensity as a function of the layers number. (b) Saturable (black solid circles) and nonsaturable (red empty circles) absorption coefficients as a function of the layers number. The dashed lines are guides to the eye.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmittance spectrum in the THz region for sample 1 (blue dashed line), sample 2 (red dashed-dotted line) and sample 3 (green dotted line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) ID/IG as a function of the numbers of layers. Max (red circle), mean (green square) and min (black diamond) correspond to the maximum, mean and minimum values of ID/IG, respectively, as estimated from a representative micro-Raman mapped area (30x30 μm2). (b) Ratio between the nonsaturable and the linear absorption coefficients as a function of the number of layers.

Equations (1)

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α ( I ) = α N S + α S 1 + I 0 ( z ) I S

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