M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (U.S. Department of Commerce, NIST, 1972).

L. D. Landau, J. S. Bell, M. J. Kearsley, L. P. Pitaevskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and J. B. Sykes, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2. (Elsevier, 1984).

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

C. M. Bender, S. Boettcher, and P. N. Meisinger, “PT–symmetric quantum mechanics,” J. Math. Phys. 40, 2201 (1999).

[Crossref]

A. Lupu, H. Benisty, and A. Degiron, “Switching using PT symmetry in plasmonic systems: positive role of the losses,” Opt. Express 21, 192–195 (2013).

[Crossref]

H. Benisty, C. Yan, A. Degiron, and A. Lupu, “Healing near-PT-symmetric structures to restore their characteristic singularities: analysis and examples,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2675–2683 (2012).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, T. M. Benson, H. Susanto, and P. Sewell, “A versatile all–optical parity–time signal processing device using a Bragg grating induced using positive and negative Kerr-nonlinearity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 37–47 (2015).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Impact of dispersive and saturable gain/loss on bistability of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2603–2606 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Ultrafast optical switching using parity–time symmetric Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2984–2991 (2013).

[Crossref]

E. Smotrova, A. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 78–85 (2006).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Practical limitation on operation of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” in META 2014 Conference (2014), pp. 270–275.

A. Regensburger, M. Miri, and C. Bersch, “Observation of defect states in PT-symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223902 (2013).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. M. Bender, S. Boettcher, and P. N. Meisinger, “PT–symmetric quantum mechanics,” J. Math. Phys. 40, 2201 (1999).

[Crossref]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT–iymmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).

[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity–time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).

[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT–Symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).

[Crossref]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT–iymmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).

[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).

[Crossref]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2632–2634 (2007).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “PT symmetric large area single mode DFB lasers,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2014 (OSA, 2014), Vol. 1, paper FM1D.3.

J. Paul, C. Christopoulos, and D. W. P. Thomas, “Generalized material models in TLM.I. Materials with frequency-dependent properties,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 47, 1528–1534 (1999).

[Crossref]

C. Christopoulos, The Transmission-Line Modeling Method TLM (IEEE-Oxford University, 1995).

[Crossref]

S. C. Creagh and M. D. Finn, “Evanescent coupling between discs: a model for near-integrable tunnelling,” J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 34, 3791–3801 (2001).

[Crossref]

J. Čtyroký, “Dispersion properties of coupled waveguides with loss and gain: a full-vectorial analysis,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46, 465–475 (2014).

[Crossref]

J. Čtyroký, V. Kuzmiak, and S. Eyderman, “Waveguide structures with antisymmetric gain/loss profile,” Opt. Express 18, 21585–21593 (2010).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

H. Nolting, G. Sztefka, and J. Čtyroký, “Wave propagation in a waveguide with a balance of gain and loss,” in Integrated Photonics Research (OSA, 1996), pp. 76–80.

A. Lupu, H. Benisty, and A. Degiron, “Switching using PT symmetry in plasmonic systems: positive role of the losses,” Opt. Express 21, 192–195 (2013).

[Crossref]

H. Benisty, C. Yan, A. Degiron, and A. Lupu, “Healing near-PT-symmetric structures to restore their characteristic singularities: analysis and examples,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2675–2683 (2012).

[Crossref]

A. A. Zyablovsky, A. P. Vinogradov, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. A. Pukhov, and A. A. Lisyansky, “Causality and phase transitions in PT-symmetric optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033808 (2014).

[Crossref]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT–iymmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).

[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).

[Crossref]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2632–2634 (2007).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

S. Longhi and L. Feng, “PT-symmetric microring laser-absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5026–5029 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. C. Creagh and M. D. Finn, “Evanescent coupling between discs: a model for near-integrable tunnelling,” J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 34, 3791–3801 (2001).

[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT–Symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

S. C. Hagness, R. M. Joseph, and A. Taflove, “Subpicosecond electrodynamics of distributed Bragg reflector microlasers: results from finite difference time domain simulations,” Radio Sci. 31, 931–941 (1996).

[Crossref]

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “PT symmetric large area single mode DFB lasers,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2014 (OSA, 2014), Vol. 1, paper FM1D.3.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “PT symmetric large area single mode DFB lasers,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2014 (OSA, 2014), Vol. 1, paper FM1D.3.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity–time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).

[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity–time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).

[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity–time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).

[Crossref]

H. F. Jones, “Analytic results for a PT -symmetric optical structure,” J. Phys. A-Math. Theor. 45, 135306 (2012).

[Crossref]

S. C. Hagness, R. M. Joseph, and A. Taflove, “Subpicosecond electrodynamics of distributed Bragg reflector microlasers: results from finite difference time domain simulations,” Radio Sci. 31, 931–941 (1996).

[Crossref]

L. D. Landau, J. S. Bell, M. J. Kearsley, L. P. Pitaevskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and J. B. Sykes, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2. (Elsevier, 1984).

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “PT symmetric large area single mode DFB lasers,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2014 (OSA, 2014), Vol. 1, paper FM1D.3.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).

[Crossref]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT–iymmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).

[Crossref]

M. Kulishov, B. Kress, and R. Slavk, “Resonant cavities based on Parity-Time-symmetric diffractive gratings,” Opt. Express 21, 68–70 (2013).

[Crossref]

M. Kulishov, B. Kress, and R. Slavk, “Resonant cavities based on Parity-Time-symmetric diffractive gratings,” Opt. Express 21, 68–70 (2013).

[Crossref]

L. D. Landau, J. S. Bell, M. J. Kearsley, L. P. Pitaevskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and J. B. Sykes, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2. (Elsevier, 1984).

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity–time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

L. D. Landau, J. S. Bell, M. J. Kearsley, L. P. Pitaevskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and J. B. Sykes, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2. (Elsevier, 1984).

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT–iymmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).

[Crossref]

A. A. Zyablovsky, A. P. Vinogradov, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. A. Pukhov, and A. A. Lisyansky, “Causality and phase transitions in PT-symmetric optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033808 (2014).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

A. Lupu, H. Benisty, and A. Degiron, “Switching using PT symmetry in plasmonic systems: positive role of the losses,” Opt. Express 21, 192–195 (2013).

[Crossref]

H. Benisty, C. Yan, A. Degiron, and A. Lupu, “Healing near-PT-symmetric structures to restore their characteristic singularities: analysis and examples,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2675–2683 (2012).

[Crossref]

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).

[Crossref]

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. H. Musslimani, “Theory of coupled optical PT-symmetric structures,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2632–2634 (2007).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. M. Bender, S. Boettcher, and P. N. Meisinger, “PT–symmetric quantum mechanics,” J. Math. Phys. 40, 2201 (1999).

[Crossref]

A. Regensburger, M. Miri, and C. Bersch, “Observation of defect states in PT-symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223902 (2013).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “PT symmetric large area single mode DFB lasers,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2014 (OSA, 2014), Vol. 1, paper FM1D.3.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

H. Nolting, G. Sztefka, and J. Čtyroký, “Wave propagation in a waveguide with a balance of gain and loss,” in Integrated Photonics Research (OSA, 1996), pp. 76–80.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

E. Smotrova, A. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 78–85 (2006).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

J. Paul, C. Christopoulos, and D. W. P. Thomas, “Generalized material models in TLM.I. Materials with frequency-dependent properties,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 47, 1528–1534 (1999).

[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Paritytime-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 1–5 (2014).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, T. M. Benson, H. Susanto, and P. Sewell, “A versatile all–optical parity–time signal processing device using a Bragg grating induced using positive and negative Kerr-nonlinearity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 37–47 (2015).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Impact of dispersive and saturable gain/loss on bistability of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2603–2606 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Ultrafast optical switching using parity–time symmetric Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2984–2991 (2013).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Practical limitation on operation of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” in META 2014 Conference (2014), pp. 270–275.

L. D. Landau, J. S. Bell, M. J. Kearsley, L. P. Pitaevskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and J. B. Sykes, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2. (Elsevier, 1984).

A. A. Zyablovsky, A. P. Vinogradov, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. A. Pukhov, and A. A. Lisyansky, “Causality and phase transitions in PT-symmetric optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033808 (2014).

[Crossref]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT–iymmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).

[Crossref]

A. Regensburger, M. Miri, and C. Bersch, “Observation of defect states in PT-symmetric optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223902 (2013).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).

[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, T. M. Benson, H. Susanto, and P. Sewell, “A versatile all–optical parity–time signal processing device using a Bragg grating induced using positive and negative Kerr-nonlinearity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 37–47 (2015).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Impact of dispersive and saturable gain/loss on bistability of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2603–2606 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Ultrafast optical switching using parity–time symmetric Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2984–2991 (2013).

[Crossref]

E. Smotrova, A. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 78–85 (2006).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Practical limitation on operation of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” in META 2014 Conference (2014), pp. 270–275.

M. Kulishov, B. Kress, and R. Slavk, “Resonant cavities based on Parity-Time-symmetric diffractive gratings,” Opt. Express 21, 68–70 (2013).

[Crossref]

E. Smotrova, A. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Optical coupling of whispering-gallery modes of two identical microdisks and its effect on photonic molecule lasing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 78–85 (2006).

[Crossref]

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (U.S. Department of Commerce, NIST, 1972).

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT–Symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, T. M. Benson, H. Susanto, and P. Sewell, “A versatile all–optical parity–time signal processing device using a Bragg grating induced using positive and negative Kerr-nonlinearity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 37–47 (2015).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Impact of dispersive and saturable gain/loss on bistability of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2603–2606 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Ultrafast optical switching using parity–time symmetric Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2984–2991 (2013).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Practical limitation on operation of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” in META 2014 Conference (2014), pp. 270–275.

L. D. Landau, J. S. Bell, M. J. Kearsley, L. P. Pitaevskii, E. M. Lifshitz, and J. B. Sykes, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2. (Elsevier, 1984).

H. Nolting, G. Sztefka, and J. Čtyroký, “Wave propagation in a waveguide with a balance of gain and loss,” in Integrated Photonics Research (OSA, 1996), pp. 76–80.

S. C. Hagness, R. M. Joseph, and A. Taflove, “Subpicosecond electrodynamics of distributed Bragg reflector microlasers: results from finite difference time domain simulations,” Radio Sci. 31, 931–941 (1996).

[Crossref]

J. Paul, C. Christopoulos, and D. W. P. Thomas, “Generalized material models in TLM.I. Materials with frequency-dependent properties,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 47, 1528–1534 (1999).

[Crossref]

A. A. Zyablovsky, A. P. Vinogradov, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. A. Pukhov, and A. A. Lisyansky, “Causality and phase transitions in PT-symmetric optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033808 (2014).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, T. M. Benson, H. Susanto, and P. Sewell, “A versatile all–optical parity–time signal processing device using a Bragg grating induced using positive and negative Kerr-nonlinearity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 37–47 (2015).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Impact of dispersive and saturable gain/loss on bistability of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2603–2606 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Ultrafast optical switching using parity–time symmetric Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2984–2991 (2013).

[Crossref]

S. Phang, A. Vukovic, H. Susanto, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, “Practical limitation on operation of nonlinear parity-time Bragg gratings,” in META 2014 Conference (2014), pp. 270–275.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity–time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).

[Crossref]

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

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