Abstract

Metallic periodic structure in subwavelength scale offers an exciting way to couple light into surface plasmons (SPs), thus manipulating the properties of near-field optics. We show that subwavelength metallic grating (SMG) defined on the substrate side of substrate emitting quantum cascade lasers enables far-field improvement in mid-infrared spectrum. The SMG is designed to tailor the interaction of SPs with single mode transverse magnetic light. The experiment results are in good agreement with the simulated model. A far-field full width at half maximum (FWHM) divergence angle of 3.9 ° in the direction perpendicular to the laser waveguide layers is obtained, improved by a factor of 8.5 compared with traditional surface emitting device.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “Polarized single-lobed surface emission in mid-infrared, photonic-crystal, quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 859–861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, “Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3769 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babuty, A.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “Polarized single-lobed surface emission in mid-infrared, photonic-crystal, quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 859–861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, “Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3769 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bousseksou, A.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caffey, D.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chassagneux, Y.

Chen, P.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

G. Xu, Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “Polarized single-lobed surface emission in mid-infrared, photonic-crystal, quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 859–861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, T.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Wilde, Y.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

Doyen, I. M.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Edamura, T.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elazar, J. M.

Faist, J.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, “Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3769 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. A.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gan, Q.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C. F.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höfling, S.

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, “Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3769 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z. W.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kan, H.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. P.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F. Q.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. Q.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. F.

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q. Y.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Majewski, M. L.

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nähle, L.

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oesterle, U.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, “Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3769 (1999).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pflügl, C.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pushkarsky, M.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rakic, A. D.

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

G. Xu, Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “Polarized single-lobed surface emission in mid-infrared, photonic-crystal, quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 859–861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semmel, J.

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sergent, A. M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tennant, D. M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsao, S.

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. J.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. J.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. G.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

Yamanishi, M.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, F. L.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, D. Y.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. C.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. D.

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhuo, N.

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, N. Zhuo, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Surface emitting quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode above 70 °C at λ~4.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041121 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Nähle, J. Semmel, W. Kaiser, S. Höfling, and A. Forchel, “Tapered quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181122 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, “Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3769 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, F. Capasso, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, and H. Kan, “Small divergence edge-emitting semiconductor lasers with two-dimensional plasmonic collimators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q. Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day, and M. Razeghi, “High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, Q. D. Zhang, W. F. Liu, Q. Y. Lu, and Z. G. Wang, “Solid source MBE growth of quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(3), 527–532 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Y. Yao, J. C. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Z. W. Jia, F. L. Yan, L. J. Wang, J. Q. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “1.8-W room temperature pulsed operation of substrate-emitting quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 323–325 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” Science 302(5649), 1374–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Q. Liu, F. Q. Liu, L. Li, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “A mini-staged multi-stacked quantum cascade laser for improved optical and thermal performance,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(7), 075023 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1991).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The 3D sketch of the SMG-SEQCL. (b) SEM image of SMG defined on the substrate side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of simulation. (a) The schematic of the coupling of SPs. (b) 2D simulation of the electric field intensity distribution of a SMG-SEQCL at 4.6 μm. Left inset: enlarged Au grating. (c) 2D simulation of the electric field intensity distribution of a traditional SEQCL at 4.6 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The SPs conversion efficiency I as functions of metallic grating period p. (b) The optical transmittance T as functions of metallic grating period p. The dotted line depicts optical transmittance for traditional SEQCL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electric field intensity distribution of 2 μm above the metal surface at different metallic grating period p. (a) p = 3.7 μm. (b) p = 4.0 μm. (c) p = 4.02 μm. (d) p = 4.1 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

2D far-field image for a SMG-SEQCL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

1D high resolution far-field measurement for SMG-SEQCL. The fitted curves (θx) show the far-field in x axis direction at different temperature. The dotted curve shows far-field in the same direction for traditional SEQCL. The ridge width of the two kinds of laser is equivalent. The far-field (θy) in y axis direction is also presented. Inset: the corresponding wavelength at different temperature for the tested SMG-SEQCL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

P-I-V characterization of SMG-SEQCL SMG. Inset: spectra of the same laser.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ i sinq= κ sp ±n k m
I= W L 1 + L 2 W input = L 1 + L 2 ε E 2 dL W input
T= W output W input = L ε E 2 dL W input

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