Abstract

We demonstrated stimulated emission at 288 nm from a silicon-doped AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) ultraviolet (UV) laser grown on sapphire. The optical pumping threshold energy density of the UV laser was 64 mJ/cm2, while lasing behavior was not observed in undoped AlGaN MQWs. This means silicon doping could effectively reduce the lasing threshold of UV lasers, and the mechanism was studied showing that the silicon-doped AlGaN MQWs had a 41% higher internal quantum efficiency (IQE) compared with the undoped one. The transmission electron microscopy characterization showed that silicon doping explicitly improved the crystallographic quality of MQWs. Calculation of the polarization charge in the MQWs further revealed that the advantage of better structure quality outweighed the reduction of internal polarization field by Si doping for the IQE enhancement and successful stimulated emission.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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  4. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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  9. Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambacher, O.

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aoki, M.

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Asif, F.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bickermann, M.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cengher, D.

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chua, C. L.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cimalla, V.

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Coleman, A.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cong, P.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Craft, H. S.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dahal, R.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dalmau, R. F.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Denbaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detchprohm, T.

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
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P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Douglas Yoder, P.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, R. D.

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
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V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
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Garrett, G. A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geng, C.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, C.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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Himmerlich, M.

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hiramatsu, K.

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Höpler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
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Ivanov, S. V.

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
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Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
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Jain, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H. X.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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Kao, T.-T.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
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Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
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Katsuno, T.

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, R.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
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Kimura, M.

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
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Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krischok, S.

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kueller, V.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, C.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuokstis, E.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsova, Y. V.

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lachab, M.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lebedev, V.

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, D.-B.

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-H.

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lian, C.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J. Y.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
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Liu, Y.-S.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
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T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
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E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
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Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
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T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
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Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
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M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
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S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
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M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
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V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
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S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
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B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
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E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
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Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
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B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
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E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
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Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
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J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
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M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ratnikov, V. V.

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reich, C.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

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V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
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T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

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E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.-C.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shibata, T.

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simon, J.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sitar, Z.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sitnikova, A. A.

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stellmach, J.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tamulaitis, G.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Y.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. M.

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weyburne, D.

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wollweber, J.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wunderer, T.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xing, H.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yablonskii, G. P.

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeng, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhmerik, V. N.

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, Q. S. Paduano, and D. Weyburne, “Correlation between optoelectronic and structural properties and epilayer thickness of AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241101 (2007).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, M. Mahbub Satter, X.-H. Li, Z. Lochner, P. Douglas Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, J.-H. Ryou, A. M. Fischer, Y. Wei, H. Xie, and F. A. Ponce, “Sub-250 nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211103 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Lebedev, F. M. Morales, H. Romanus, S. Krischok, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, M. Himmerlich, T. Stauden, D. Cengher, and O. Ambacher, “The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D.-B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth interruption and Si doping on the structural and optical properties of AlxGaN/AlN (x>0.5) multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 500–503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Lachab, F. Asif, A. Coleman, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Optically-pumped 285 nm edge stimulated emission from AlGaN-based LED structures grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 112101 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Solid State (1)

E. V. Lutsenko, N. V. Rzheutskii, V. N. Pavlovskii, G. P. Yablonskii, D. V. Nechaev, A. A. Sitnikova, V. V. Ratnikov, Y. V. Kuznetsova, V. N. Zhmerik, and S. V. Ivanov, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the mid-ultraviolet range of quantum-well heterostructures based on AlGaN compounds grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates,” Phys. Solid State 55(10), 2173–2181 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Physica (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (3)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. A. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Piprek, Nitride semiconductor devices: principles and simulation (John Wiley & Sons, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for AlGaN-based MQWs UV lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reciprocal space mapping of the (105) reflection for layer structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stimulated spectrum at wavelength of 288nm at room temperature (295K).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TEM image of (a) Si-doped and (b) undoped AlGaN-based MQWs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependent PL of (a) Si-doped and (b) undoped AlGaN-based MQWs

Metrics