Abstract

We present a bi-layer lift-off fabrication approach to create low-loss amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) integrated optical waveguides and resonators for visible and near-infrared applications. This approach achieves single-mode waveguide losses as low as 7.5 dB/cm around 633 nm and 1.2 dB/cm around 1550 nm, a factor of 4 improvement over previous reports, without the need to optimize etching conditions. Depositing a secondary 260-nm TiO2 layer can reduce losses further, with the optimized process yielding micro-ring resonators with loaded quality factors as high as 1.5 × 105 around 1550 nm and 1.6×105 around 780 nm. These losses render our TiO2 devices suitable for visible and telecommunications applications; in addition, the simplicity of this lift-off approach is broadly applicable to other novel material platforms, particularly using near-visible wavelengths.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 × 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 102–110 (2014).
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[Crossref]

J. Bovington, R. Wu, K.-T. Cheng, and J. E. Bowers, “Thermal stress implications in athermal TiO2 waveguides on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 22, 661–666 (2014).
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[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, “Development of microfabricated TiO2 channel waveguides,” AIP Adv. 1, 32102–32105 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

L.-W. Luo, G. S. Wiederhecker, J. Cardenas, C. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “High quality factor etchless silicon photonic ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 6284–6289 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunninham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm Vπ L integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N.-N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18, 1469–1478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Lončar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 195–199 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Label-free biological and chemical sensors,” Nanoscale 2, 1544–5159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Phan and A. Bullen, “Practical intravital two-photon microscopy for immunological research: faster, brighter, deeper,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 88, 438–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides –a review,” Sensors 8, 711–738 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, N.-N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

L.-W. Yin, Y. Bando, Y.-C. Zhu, and Y.-B. Li, “Synthesis, structure, and photoluminescence of very thin and wide alpha silicon nitride (α-Si3N4) single-crystalline nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3584 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. S. Lin, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278, 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, J. Boyd, R. Davis, and F. Hickernell, “CO2 laser annealing of Si3N4, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin-film optical waveguides to achieve scattering loss reduction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 800–806 (1982).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Adhikari, B.

B. Adhikari and S. Majumdar, “Polymers in sensor applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 29, 699–766 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Agarwal, A. M.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Armani, A. M.

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Label-free biological and chemical sensors,” Nanoscale 2, 1544–5159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Babinec, T. M.

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Lončar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 195–199 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

L.-W. Yin, Y. Bando, Y.-C. Zhu, and Y.-B. Li, “Synthesis, structure, and photoluminescence of very thin and wide alpha silicon nitride (α-Si3N4) single-crystalline nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3584 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P. E.

Basak, J.

Beetz, J.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. OBrien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biswas, P.

J. Park, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Monifi, T. Chadha, S. H. Huang, P. Biswas, and L. Yang, “Titanium dioxide whispering gallery microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 711–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Black, M. R.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. OBrien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bovington, J.

Bowers, J. E.

Boyd, J.

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, J. Boyd, R. Davis, and F. Hickernell, “CO2 laser annealing of Si3N4, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin-film optical waveguides to achieve scattering loss reduction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 800–806 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Bullen, A.

T. G. Phan and A. Bullen, “Practical intravital two-photon microscopy for immunological research: faster, brighter, deeper,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 88, 438–444 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgess, I. B.

Cardenas, J.

Carlie, N.

Cerrina, F.

Chadha, T.

J. Park, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Monifi, T. Chadha, S. H. Huang, P. Biswas, and L. Yang, “Titanium dioxide whispering gallery microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 711–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, K.-T.

Cheung, S. T. S.

Choy, J. T.

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunninham, J. E.

Dalton, L. R.

Davis, R.

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, J. Boyd, R. Davis, and F. Hickernell, “CO2 laser annealing of Si3N4, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin-film optical waveguides to achieve scattering loss reduction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 800–806 (1982).
[Crossref]

de Leon, N. P.

Deotare, P. B.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dong, P.

Dorenbos, S. N.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. OBrien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dutta, S.

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, J. Boyd, R. Davis, and F. Hickernell, “CO2 laser annealing of Si3N4, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin-film optical waveguides to achieve scattering loss reduction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 800–806 (1982).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Engin, E.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. OBrien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evans, C. C.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
[Crossref]

Frantz, J. A.

Fujiwara, M.

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, “Development of microfabricated TiO2 channel waveguides,” AIP Adv. 1, 32102–32105 (2011).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Park, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Monifi, T. Chadha, S. H. Huang, P. Biswas, and L. Yang, “Titanium dioxide whispering gallery microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 711–717 (2014).
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AIP Adv. (1)

M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, “Development of microfabricated TiO2 channel waveguides,” AIP Adv. 1, 32102–32105 (2011).
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Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2052 (1996).
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L.-W. Yin, Y. Bando, Y.-C. Zhu, and Y.-B. Li, “Synthesis, structure, and photoluminescence of very thin and wide alpha silicon nitride (α-Si3N4) single-crystalline nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3584 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41, 1377 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Dutta, H. Jackson, J. Boyd, R. Davis, and F. Hickernell, “CO2 laser annealing of Si3N4, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin-film optical waveguides to achieve scattering loss reduction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 800–806 (1982).
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Immunol. Cell Biol. (1)

T. G. Phan and A. Bullen, “Practical intravital two-photon microscopy for immunological research: faster, brighter, deeper,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 88, 438–444 (2010).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nanoscale (1)

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Label-free biological and chemical sensors,” Nanoscale 2, 1544–5159 (2010).
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O. Reshef, K. Shtyrkova, M. G. Moebius, S. Griesse-Nascimento, S. Spector, C. C. Evans, E. Ippen, and E. Mazur, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide micro-ring resonators with negative thermo-optic coefficient.”

ISO 4287/1997 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)–Surface texture: Profile method–Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Fabrication process flow showing the lift-off resist (LOR) and deep-ultraviolet (DUV) resist bilayer, post-development undercutting, TiO2 deposition, and lift-off to produce a channel waveguide. (b) Scanning electron micrograph showing the undercutting geometry in the resist, pre-deposition. (c) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the resulting TiO2 waveguide after secondary deposition showing both film and waveguide roughness.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental and modeled (solid line) cross section profiles of channel waveguides with various widths. (b–e) TE mode profiles of single-mode channel waveguides showing similar confinement across wavelengths from 633 –1550 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) To determine the optical propagation loss, we measure a series of waveguides with different lengths. (b) For each width, we plot the maximum transmission and then fit to a line to calculate the loss, as shown using single-mode data as an example. (c) We compare the losses in single-mode channel, multi-mode rib, and planar waveguides (with connected lines for visualization). With the exception of multimode waveguides at telecommunications wavelengths, we observe decreasing losses with increasing wavelength for all structured waveguides, which become limited by planar waveguide losses at telecommunications wavelengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) We form 150-μm micro-ring resonators using 750-nm (shown) and 500-nm wide multimode waveguides around 1550 nm and 780 nm, respectively. (b) These measurements demonstrate a free-spectral range of 1.052 nm around 1550 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Using transmission data, we fit individual resonances to a Lorentzian function and observe loaded Q-factors as high as 1.5 × 105 around 1550 nm. (b) For 780-nm measurements, we measure scattered light from the ring using the top-view method and observe loaded Q-factors as high as 1.6 × 105.

Equations (4)

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h ( x ) = A 0 e ( x / τ 0 ) 2 + A 1 e ( x / τ 1 ) 4 ,
n g ( λ ) λ 2 F S R 2 π r .
Q 0 = 2 Q l o a d e d 1 ± T 0 .
α = 2 π n g Q 0 λ 0 ,

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