Abstract

We propose large bandwidth and high fabrication-tolerance mode-order converters on the silicon-on-insulator platform based on novel compact tapers structures. Each of the converters is in a single waveguide. Designs of different symmetries with and without breaking the parities between odd and even modes are illustrated. The fabrication tolerances of the devices are also investigated. The simulation results show that high conversion efficiencies can be readily achieved over a wavelength range from 1520 nm to 1580 nm for all of the proposed devices. The average conversion efficiencies of TE1-to-TE0, TE2-to-TE0, TE3-to-TE0, TE2-to-TE1, TE3-to-TE1, and TE3-to-TE2 converters are −0.061 dB, −0.052 dB, −0.11 dB, −0.119 dB, −0.168 dB, and −0.154 dB, respectively. The conversion efficiencies have negligible degradations under normal width and thickness deviations.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (9)

L. H. Frandsen, Y. Elesin, L. F. Frellsen, M. Mitrovic, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and K. Yvind, “Topology optimized mode conversion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8525–8532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guan, Y. Ma, R. Shi, A. Novack, J. Tao, Q. Fang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultracompact silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator for polarization-diversified circuits,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4703–4706 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4839–4842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ohana and U. Levy, “Mode conversion based on dielectric metamaterial in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27617–27631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, P. Wang, and J. Yang, “Optical mode interleaver based on the asymmetric multimode Y junction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2043–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (6)

2010 (1)

A. Hosseini, J. Covey, D. Kwong, and R. Chen, “Tapered multi-mode interference couplers for high order mode power extraction,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Huang, G. Xu, and S.-T. Ho, “An ultracompact optical mode order converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2281–2283 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. L. Y. Low, Y. S. Yong, A. H. You, S. F. Chien, and C. F. Teo, “A five-order mode converter for multimode waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1673–1675 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bergman, K.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Buhl, L. L.

Castro, J.

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, P.

Chen, R.

A. Hosseini, J. Covey, D. Kwong, and R. Chen, “Tapered multi-mode interference couplers for high order mode power extraction,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, P. Wang, and J. Yang, “Optical mode interleaver based on the asymmetric multimode Y junction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2043–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chien, S. F.

A. L. Y. Low, Y. S. Yong, A. H. You, S. F. Chien, and C. F. Teo, “A five-order mode converter for multimode waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1673–1675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Covey, J.

A. Hosseini, J. Covey, D. Kwong, and R. Chen, “Tapered multi-mode interference couplers for high order mode power extraction,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

Ding, Y.

Dong, P.

Driscoll, J. B.

Elesin, Y.

Fan, S.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J. M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frandsen, L. H.

Frellsen, L. F.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galland, C.

Gan, F.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geraghty, D. F.

Giden, I. H.

Green, W. M. J.

Greiner, C. M.

Grote, R. R.

Guan, H.

Ho, S.-T.

Y. Huang, G. Xu, and S.-T. Ho, “An ultracompact optical mode order converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2281–2283 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Honkanen, S.

Horst, F.

Hosseini, A.

A. Hosseini, J. Covey, D. Kwong, and R. Chen, “Tapered multi-mode interference couplers for high order mode power extraction,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, F.-C.

Hu, C.

Hu, T.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

Huang, H.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, G. Xu, and S.-T. Ho, “An ultracompact optical mode order converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2281–2283 (2006).
[Crossref]

Iazikov, D.

Jhang, Y.-W.

Jia, Q.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Jiao, Y.

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kurt, H.

Kwong, D.

A. Hosseini, J. Covey, D. Kwong, and R. Chen, “Tapered multi-mode interference couplers for high order mode power extraction,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.-T.

Levy, U.

Li, M.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lin, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, V.

Lo, G.-Q.

Low, A. L. Y.

A. L. Y. Low, Y. S. Yong, A. H. You, S. F. Chien, and C. F. Teo, “A five-order mode converter for multimode waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1673–1675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mitrovic, M.

Mossberg, T. W.

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Novack, A.

Offrein, B. J.

Ohana, D.

Okyay, A. K.

Oner, B. B.

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Ou, H.

Peucheret, C.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, H.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shank, S. M.

Shao, H.

Sheng, Z.

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Ultrabroadband silicon-on-insulator polarization beam splitter based on cascaded mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(6), 1109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, R.

Shi, Y.

Shin, S.-Y.

Sigmund, O.

Souhan, B.

Stein, A.

Tang, Y.

Tao, J.

Teo, C. F.

A. L. Y. Low, Y. S. Yong, A. H. You, S. F. Chien, and C. F. Teo, “A five-order mode converter for multimode waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1673–1675 (2004).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the proposed TE1-to-TE0 mode converter, (a) the initial design, and (b) the optimized design. It consists of six asymmetric tapers, and the total length of the device is L1 + L2 + L3. The blue dash dot line is the midline of the input waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulation results of the proposed TE1-to-TE0 mode converter: (a)-(c) simulated the Ey field propagation in the device at 1520 nm, 1550 nm, and 1580 nm, (d) simulated conversion efficiency over wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematics of the proposed mode converter, (a) TE2-to-TE0, (b) TE3-to-TE0. Blue dash dot line is the midline of the input waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated the Ey field propagation in the device at 1550 nm of TE2-to-TE0 mode converter, and (b) conversion efficiency over wavelength range from 1520 nm to 1580 nm. (c) Simulated the Ey field propagation in the device at 1550 nm wavelength of TE3-to-TE0 mode converter, and (d) conversion efficiency over wavelength range from 1520 nm to 1580 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)-(c) Simulated field intensity distributions at 1550 nm wavelength of TE2-to-TE1, TE3-to-TE1, and TE3-to-TE2 mode converter, and (d) corresponding conversion efficiency over wavelength range from 1520 nm to 1580 nm, TE2-to-TE1 is in olive, TE3-to-TE1 is in orange, TE3-to-TE2 is in blue.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated average conversion efficiency varied with the waveguide width deviation, (b) simulated average conversion efficiency varied with the waveguide thickness deviation. TE1-to-TE0 is in magenta, TE2-to-TE0 is in olive, TE3-to-TE0 is in blue.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Final optimized parameters of the three converters

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