Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for characterizing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) pulses based on time-resolved reflection spectroscopy of fused silica pumped by an intense laser pulse. Plasma mirror reflection is used as an ultrafast optical switch, which enables us to measure frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) traces. The VUV temporal waveform can be retrieved from the measured FROG trace using principal component generalized projections algorithm with modification. The temporal profile of the plasma mirror reflectivity is also extracted simultaneously.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

T. Kumada, H. Akagi, R. Itakura, T. Otobe, and A. Yokoyama, “Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103504 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 063105 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. K. Singh, G. Chatterjee, A. Adak, A. D. Lad, P. Brijesh, and G. Ravindra Kumar, “Ultrafast optics of solid density plasma using multicolor probes,” Opt. Express 22, 22320–22327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, M. J. Bell, A. R. Beck, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, C. P. Steiner, J. Robinson, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Tunable frequency-controlled isolated attosecond pulses characterized by either 750 nm or 400 nm wavelength streak fields,” Opt. Express 18, 25887–25895 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, R. Itakura, and T. Nakajima, “Characterization of attosecond XUV pulses utilizing a broadband UV∼VUV pumping,” Opt. Express 18, 2020–2035 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. Itakura, “Spectral phase measurement of attosecond pulses using the quantum beat between the P1/2 and P3/2 levels of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033810 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “High harmonic xuv spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

B. Dromey, S. Kar, M. Zepf, and P. Foster, “The plasma mirror–a subpicosecond optical switch for ultrahigh power lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 645–649 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Doumy, F. Quéré, O. Gobert, M. Perdrix, P. Martin, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, and T. Wittmann, “Complete characterization of a plasma mirror for the production of high-contrast ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026402 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

K. Michelmann, U. Wagner, T. Feurer, U. Teubner, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, “Measurement of the page function of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 198, 163–170 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of alkali halides and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 329–528 (1976).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

C. H. Page, “Instantaneous power spectra,” J. Appl. Phys. 23, 103–106 (1952).
[Crossref]

Abel, M. J.

Adachi, S.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adak, A.

Akagi, H.

T. Kumada, H. Akagi, R. Itakura, T. Otobe, and A. Yokoyama, “Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arthur, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Audebert, P.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Doumy, F. Quéré, O. Gobert, M. Perdrix, P. Martin, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, and T. Wittmann, “Complete characterization of a plasma mirror for the production of high-contrast ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026402 (2004).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, A. R.

Bell, M. J.

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bionta, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bostedt, C.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bougeard, M.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bozek, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brachmann, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “High harmonic xuv spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brijesh, P.

Bucksbaum, P.

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D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stefan, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steiner, C. P.

Szoke, A.

Tanaka, H.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teubner, U.

K. Michelmann, U. Wagner, T. Feurer, U. Teubner, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, “Measurement of the page function of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 198, 163–170 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thaury, C.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Togashi, T.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tomizawa, H.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tompkins, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utéza, O.

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 063105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Varkentina, N.

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 063105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, U.

K. Michelmann, U. Wagner, T. Feurer, U. Teubner, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, “Measurement of the page function of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 198, 163–170 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

White, W.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Witte, K.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittmann, T.

G. Doumy, F. Quéré, O. Gobert, M. Perdrix, P. Martin, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, and T. Wittmann, “Complete characterization of a plasma mirror for the production of high-contrast ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026402 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabashi, M.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamanouchi, K.

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yocky, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, A.

T. Kumada, H. Akagi, R. Itakura, T. Otobe, and A. Yokoyama, “Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yudin, G. L.

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zen, H.

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zepf, M.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, M. Zepf, and P. Foster, “The plasma mirror–a subpicosecond optical switch for ultrahigh power lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 645–649 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Zen, T. Kii, and H. Ohgaki, “Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191105 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
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D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Kumada, H. Akagi, R. Itakura, T. Otobe, and A. Yokoyama, “Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103504 (2014).
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M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 063105 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Yabashi, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, H. Tomizawa, T. Togashi, M. Nagasono, T. Ishikawa, J. R. Harries, Y. Hikosaka, A. Hishikawa, K. Nagaya, N. Saito, E. Shigemasa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Ueda, “Compact XFEL and AMO sciences: SACLA and SCSS,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164001 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F. J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H. D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an angstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and P. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Michelmann, U. Wagner, T. Feurer, U. Teubner, E. Förster, and R. Sauerbrey, “Measurement of the page function of an ultrashort laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 198, 163–170 (2001).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. Itakura, “Spectral phase measurement of attosecond pulses using the quantum beat between the P1/2 and P3/2 levels of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033810 (2007).
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Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
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Phys. Rev. E (1)

G. Doumy, F. Quéré, O. Gobert, M. Perdrix, P. Martin, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, and T. Wittmann, “Complete characterization of a plasma mirror for the production of high-contrast ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026402 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “High harmonic xuv spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (2005).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Dromey, S. Kar, M. Zepf, and P. Foster, “The plasma mirror–a subpicosecond optical switch for ultrahigh power lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 645–649 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top view of experimental setup. (a) Overview. (b) Expanded view of the vacuum chamber, in which the delay line and an FS plate on the two-dimensionally motorized stage are installed. A microscope image of craters formed by laser ablation on an FS plate is shown at the bottom-right.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raw data of the time-resolved reflection spectra Itotal(λ, τ) of FS. (b) Difference in the reflection induced by the plasma mirror, I reflec diff ( λ , τ ). (c) Spectrum difference I reflec diff ( λ , τ = 807 fs ) (thin red line) and reflection spectrum of the unexcited FS surface (thick gray line). See text for details.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Assumed temporal intensity IVUV(t) (thick red line) and phase ϕVUV(t) (dotted blue line) of a VUV pulse, and assumed reflectivity difference R(t) − R0 = |G(t)|2 (thin gray line). (b) Delayed temporal intensities IVUV(tτ) with τ = 0 fs (thick red line), 427 fs (dotted red line), 846 fs (dashed red line), and −427 fs (dash-dotted red line). When τ = −427 fs, part of a pulse is wrapped around from the negative end to the positive end, resulting in an artificial non-zero intensity in the range of t > 600 fs. The reflectivity difference R(t) − R0 (thin gray line) is plotted for reference.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated reflection intensity in time domain, IVUV(tτ) (R(t) − R0)=|Esig(t, τ)|2. In the simulation, IVUV(t) and R(t) − R0 in Fig. 3(a) are used. (b) Simulated PM-FROG trace obtained through the Fourier transform of Esig(t, τ). The artificial components emerge in the area of τ < 0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured PM-FROG trace, IFROG(ωi, τj), with the pixel size of 256 × 256. (b) Retrieved FROG trace with PCGPA modified for plasma mirror reflection. Only the area of τ ≥ 0 is retrieved.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Retrieved temporal intensity IVUV(t) (thick red solid line) and phase ϕVUV(t) (dotted blue line) of the VUV pulse and retrieved reflectivity difference R(t) − R0 (thin gray line). As τ increases to the maximum delay of 846 fs, IVUV(tτ) is shifted to the right direction as plotted by a red dashed line. (b) Retrieved VUV spectrum (thick red line) and spectral phase (dotted blue line). The spectral phase distorted by the propagation in the LiF lens of 2.3 mm thickness is drawn by a thin gray line. See text for details.

Equations (8)

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I total ( λ , τ ) = I plasma ( λ ) + I reflec 0 ( λ ) + I reflec diff ( λ , τ ) ,
I reflec diff ( λ , τ ) = d ω d λ | E VUV ( t τ ) R ( t ) R 0 exp ( i ω t ) d t | 2 ,
E VUV ( t ) I VUV ( t ) exp { i ϕ VUV ( t ) } ,
I FROG ( ω , τ ) = I reflec diff ( λ , τ ) × d λ d ω = | E VUV ( t τ ) G ( t ) exp ( i ω t ) d t | 2 .
E sig ( t , τ ) E VUV ( t τ ) G ( t ) , E ˜ sig ( ω , τ ) E sig ( t , τ ) exp ( i ω t ) d t ,
E VUV ( t i ) = [ E VUV ( N 2 Δ t ) , E VUV ( ( N 2 + 1 ) Δ t ) , , E VUV ( ( N 2 1 ) Δ t ) ] , G ( t i ) = [ G ( N 2 Δ t ) , G ( ( N 2 + 1 ) Δ t ) , , G ( ( N 2 1 ) Δ t ) ] ,
G ( k ) = 2 N 2 i = 1 N j = N 2 + 1 N | I FROG ( ω i , τ j ) μ I FROG ( k ) ( ω i , τ j ) | 2 ,
φ ( ω ) = φ 0 + φ 1 ( ω ω 0 ) + φ 2 2 ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + + φ n n ! ( ω ω 0 ) n + .

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