Abstract

We report on high-speed plasmonic-organic hybrid Mach-Zehnder modulators comprising ultra-compact phase shifters with lengths as small as 19 µm. Choosing an optimum phase shifter length of 29 µm, we demonstrate 40 Gbit/s on-off keying (OOK) modulation with direct detection and a BER < 6 × 10−4. Furthermore, we report on a 29 µm long binary-phase shift keying (BPSK) modulator and show that it operates error-free (BER < 1 × 10−10) at data rates up to 40 Gbit/s and with an energy consumption of 70 fJ/bit.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

H. C. Nguyen, S. Hashimoto, M. Shinkawa, and T. Baba, “Compact and fast photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22465–22474 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, and Y. K. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1178–1180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Apostolopoulos, D.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avramopoulos, H.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Baba, T.

Babicheva, V. E.

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baus, M.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Beattie, J.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bolten, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brosi, J. M.

Cai, W.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carothers, D.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y.-K.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dalton, L.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Dereux, A.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Fedeli, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Fontaine, N. K.

Fournier, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hahn, H.

Hashimoto, S.

Hassan, K.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Heni, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Hill, C.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jazbinsek, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kalavrouziotis, D.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kamocsai, R.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koeber, S.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kohl, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korn, D.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kumar, A.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kurz, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Lauermann, M.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leufke, P. M.

Leuthold, J.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lindenmann, N.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Ma, R.-M.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Markey, L.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. C.

O’Faolain, L.

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Papaioannou, S.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peter, G.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeifle, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pleros, N.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Pomerene, A.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Rasras, M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schimmel, T.

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinkawa, M.

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tekin, T.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tu, K.-Y.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, S.

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vincze, P.

Vyrsokinos, K.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wahlbrink, T.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waldow, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walheim, S.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J.-C.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wehrli, S.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

White, A. E.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, J. S.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woessner, M.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Xie, C.

Ye, J.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Zhu, S.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit s-1 silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Light. Technol. (1)

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” IEEE J. Light. Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, G. Peter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).

Nano Lett. (2)

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
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Opt. Express (7)

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
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S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
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H. C. Nguyen, S. Hashimoto, M. Shinkawa, and T. Baba, “Compact and fast photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22465–22474 (2012).
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A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
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J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
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J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
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D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
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Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
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Sci Rep (1)

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2(652), 652 (2012).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerle, J. Niegemann, A. Emboras, A. Josten, F. Ducry, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, D. Hillerkuss, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2014), paper PD2.6.
[Crossref]

J. Lee, N. Kaneda, T. Pfau, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and Y.-K. Chen, “Serial 103. 125 Gbit/s transmission over 1 km SSMF for low- cost, short-reach optical interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2014), paper Th5A.5.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” in IEEE 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2008), paper WA2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) phase modulator (PM) and Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. (a) Schematic of the POH PM comprising a metallic slot waveguide filled and clad with an electro-optic (EO) material. The photonic mode of a silicon nanowire waveguide (blue) is converted to a gap surface plasmon polariton (SPP) via a tapered silicon waveguide enclosed by a tapered gap plasmon waveguide [23]. The inset shows a cross section of the device with the mode field of the SPP in the gap. In addition, a lumped-element equivalent circuit of the PM is given. The device can be represented by a capacitor (CDevice ≈1.5…3 fF, length dependent). (b) Optical microscope photograph of the fabricated POH PM. Light is launched in and out of the silicon waveguide via diffraction grating couplers. The phase of the optical signal is modulated in the plasmonic modulator section having a length of 29 µm. (c) Optical microscope image of the fabricated MZM. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform using low-loss photonic MMI couplers for light splitting and combing. An optical path difference is implemented in the MZI, and the operating point is selected by choosing the operating wavelength. For modulation, an optical phase difference between the two arms is induced by the SPP phase shifters [19]. (d) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of the silicon-plasmonic MZM. The modes of the silicon waveguide are coupled to the plasmonic phase PM sections, which modulate the phase of the SPPs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electro-optic response of a phase modulator with a length of 29 μm. (a) Modulation index as a function of the modulating frequency for a sinusoidal RF modulation signal. The RF power amounts to ‒10dBm measured for a 50 Ω terminating resistor. The black solid line gives the mean of two consecutive measurements, and the error bars indicate the difference between the two. For comparison, the grey solid line shows the transfer function of the GS probe from its coaxial input to the GS output as taken from the data sheet. The vertical scale is adjusted to show that for the higher frequencies the drop in modulation index is—to a significant amount—due to the frequency response of the probe. Hypothetical 3dB bandwidth of a MZM comprising the plasmonic PMs is indicated as a red dashed line. (b) Modulation index versus carrier wavelength in a wavelength range of 70 nm for the modulating RF fm = 40 GHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup and constellation diagrams of BPSK data experiments performed with the plasmonic phase modulator. (a) Experimental setup used for generation and detection of the BPSK signals. (b), (c), (d) Constellation diagrams for the bit rates of 30 Gbit/s, 35 Gbit/s, 40 Gbit/s, respectively. Measured EVM are about 18% corresponding to an BER smaller than 10−10 [25].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Static characterization of Mach-Zehnder modulators. (a) Fiber-to-fiber power transmission for MZMs with lengths of 19 µm, 29 µm and 39 µm. In addition, the transmission spectrum of a reference Mach-Zehnder interferometer without PS sections is shown. The plasmonic PS add 13 dB…20 dB additional optical loss. (b) Transmission spectrum of a 39 µm long device for various applied voltages U0. Analyzing the shift of the wavelength corresponding to the minimum transmission we estimate the voltage Uπ required for having a phase shift of π.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Modulation experiments with plasmonic silicon-organic MZMs with PS lengths of 19 µm, 29 µm and 39 µm. (a) Direct receiver setup used for detecting on-off keyed signal after the plasmonic MZMs. (b) Bit error ratios measured for the MZMs with plasmonic phase modulator sections having lengths of 19 µm, 29 µm and 39 µm. To find the optimum phase shifter length, we vary the input power to the modulators and measure the BER. A compromise between the optical loss and the modulation index can be achieved by using a MZM with a PS length of 29 µm. (c) Eye diagrams measured at bit rates of 30 Gbit/s (BER = 2 × 10−5), 35 Gbit/s (BER = 3 × 10−5) and 40 Gbit/s (BER = 6 × 10−4) for a MZM with 29 µm long PS sections at an input optical power of 20 dBm and at an operating wavelength of 1556.8 nm. The difference in the DC levels for data rates of 35 Gbit/s and 40 Gbit/s is attributed to the thermal drift of the operating point as a consequence of the large optical input power.

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