Abstract

We design and fabricate silicon vertical slot waveguides for terabit-scale data transmission. The designed silicon photonic device is composed of apodized grating couplers, strip waveguides, strip-to-slot/slot-to-strip mode converters, and slot waveguide. Tight light confinement in the nano-scale air slot region is achieved in the silicon vertical slot waveguide which features relatively lower nonlinearity compared to silicon strip waveguide. Using the fabricated silicon photonic devices, we first demonstrate ultra-wide bandwidth 1.8-Tbit/s data transmission through a 2-mm-long silicon vertical slot waveguide using 161 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) channels each carrying 11.2-Gbit/s orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal. All 161 WDM channels achieve bit-error rate (BER) less than 1e-3 after on-chip data transmission. We further demonstrate terabit-scale data transmission through four silicon vertical slot waveguides with different lengths (1 mm, 2 mm, 3.1 mm, 12.2 mm). The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of data transmission through four silicon vertical slot waveguides are 1, 2, 3.2 and 4.5 dB at a BER of 1e-3, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the presented silicon vertical slot waveguide might be an alternative promising candidate facilitating chip-scale high-speed optical interconnections

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6100108 (2014).

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Weimann, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Wolf, D. Bekele, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, S. Koeber, R. Schmogrow, L. Alloatti, D. Elder, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) frequency comb sources for terabit/s data transmission,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3629–3637 (2014), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-22-3-3629 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, Z. Tu, T. Li, and X. Wang, “Silicon photonics for advanced optical interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 928–933 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15915 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulation, and emitting light on silicon challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Afshar V, S.

Alasaarela, T.

Alloatti, L.

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6100108 (2014).

Balthasar, G.

Barwicz, T.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bekele, D.

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

L. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, J. Chan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “40-Gb/s DPSK data transmission through a silicon microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 473–475 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15915 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network-on-chip,” in Pro. Int. Symp. Networks-on-chip (NOCS), Princeton, NJ (2007).
[Crossref]

Bi, H.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15915 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bradley, J. D.

Bramerie, L.

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6100108 (2014).

Byun, H.

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network-on-chip,” in Pro. Int. Symp. Networks-on-chip (NOCS), Princeton, NJ (2007).
[Crossref]

Chan, J.

L. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, J. Chan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “40-Gb/s DPSK data transmission through a silicon microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 473–475 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, R.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. M.

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6100108 (2014).

Cheng, Z. Z.

Choi, J.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chou, C.-Y.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chow, C.-W.

Costa e Silva, M.

Dadap, J. I.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Dalton, L. R.

Ding, Y.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6100108 (2014).

Driessen, A.

Elder, D.

Essiambre, R.

Fontaine, N. K.

Freude, W.

Gan, F.

Gay, M.

Geis, M.

Gnauck, A. H.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon photonic nanowire waveguides for on-chip networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grein, M.

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed silicon vertical slot waveguide. (a) Mode converter. (b) Cross-section of silicon vertical slot waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) silicon photonic device (grating couplers, strip waveguides, slot waveguides, and strip-to-slot/slot-to-strip mode converters), (b)(c) apodized grating coupler, (d)(e) mode converter between strip waveguide and slot waveguide, (f)(g) bending region, and (h)(i) slot region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for terabit-scale ultra-wide bandwidth WDM OFDM 16-QAM data transmission through silicon vertical slot waveguides.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured optical spectra of signals at the transmitter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Output spectrum of ultra-wide bandwidth 1.8-Tbit/s (161 WDM OFDM 16-QAM) signals after transmitting through the silicon vertical slot waveguide. (b) BER performance for all 161 WDM channels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Received RF spectrum of OFDM 16-QAM signal after demodulation; (b) Measured BER versus received OSNR for data transmission through a 2-mm silicon vertical slot waveguide at three typical wavelengths.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) BER versus received OSNR and (b) constellations for data transmission through 1-mm (slot 1), 2-mm (slot 2), 3.1-mm (slot 3), and 12.2-mm-long (slot 4) silicon vertical slot waveguides, respectively.

Equations (3)

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A eff = | ( e ν × h ν * ) z ^ dA | 2 | ( e ν × h ν * ) z ^ | 2 dA
γ ν = 2π λ n 2 ¯ A eff
n 2 ¯ =k ε 0 μ 0 n 2 (x,y) n 2 (x,y)(2 | e ν | 4 + | e ν 2 | 2 ) dA 3 | ( e ν × h ν * ) z ^ | 2 dA

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