Abstract

In this study we analyze and discuss the optical properties of various tandem architectures: mechanically stacked (four-terminal) and monolithically integrated (two-terminal) tandem devices, consisting of a methyl ammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite top solar cell and a crystalline silicon bottom solar cell. We provide layer thickness optimization guidelines and give estimates of the maximum tandem efficiencies based on state-of-the-art sub cells. We use experimental complex refractive index spectra for all involved materials as input data for an in-house developed optical simulator CROWM. Our characterization based simulations forecast that with optimized layer thicknesses the four-terminal configuration enables efficiencies over 30%, well above the current single-junction crystalline silicon cell record of 25.6%. Efficiencies over 30% can also be achieved with a two-terminal monolithic integration of the sub-cells, combined with proper selection of layer thicknesses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

2014 (13)

N. J. Jeon, H. G. Lee, Y. C. Kim, J. Seo, J. H. Noh, J. Lee, and S. I. Seok, “o-Methoxy substituents in spiro-OMeTAD for efficient inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(22), 7837–7840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, B. Niesen, S.-J. Moon, S. Martin de Nicolas, J. Holovsky, Z. Remes, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Perspectives for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1545–1551 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% Record efficiency HIT solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, C. Sturdevant, and S. Guha, “Perovskite-kesterite monolithic tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 173902 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Momblona, O. Malinkiewicz, C. Roldán-Carmona, A. Soriano, L. Gil-Escrig, E. Bandiello, M. Scheepers, E. Edri, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Eisenlohr, J. Benick, M. Peters, B. Bläsi, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Hexagonal sphere gratings for enhanced light trapping in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A111–A119 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Schneider, N. N. Lal, S. Baker-Finch, and T. P. White, “Pyramidal surface textures for light trapping and antireflection in perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(S6Suppl 6), A1422–A1430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C.-S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. Il Seok, “Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical Management for Colorful, Efficient, and Stable Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanostructured Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Richter, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Reassessment of the Limiting Efficiency for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1184–1191 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu and T. L. Kelly, “Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(10), e106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Record Infrared Internal Quantum Efficiency in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Dielectric/Metal Rear Reflectors,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1243–1249 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Snaith, “Perovskites: The Emergence of a New Era for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3623–3630 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. H. Seo, D.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, M. Song, M.-S. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, H. W. Lee, Y. C. Park, J.-D. Kwon, K.-S. Nam, Y. Jeong, J.-W. Kang, and C. S. Kim, “High efficiency inorganic/organic hybrid tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4523–4527 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Xiong and W. Chen, “Recent progress on tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(4), 371–389 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419–3423 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. Midem – J. Microelectron. Electron. Components Mater. 41, 264–271 (2011).

S. C. Baker-Finch and K. R. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Topič, A. Čampa, M. Filipič, M. Berginc, U. O. Krašovec, F. Smole, and U. Opara Krašovec, “Optical and electrical modelling and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S425–S430 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kurtz and J. Geisz, “Multijunction solar cells for conversion of concentrated sunlight to electricity,” Opt. Express 18(S1), 73–78 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. J. Moulé, H. J. Snaith, M. Kaiser, H. Klesper, D. M. Huang, M. Grätzel, and K. Meerholz, “Optical description of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. I. Measurement of layer optical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073111 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329 (2004).
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1984 (1)

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G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
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Bailat, J.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
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Baker-Finch, S.

Baker-Finch, S. C.

S. C. Baker-Finch and K. R. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
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Ballif, C.

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

P. Löper, B. Niesen, S.-J. Moon, S. Martin de Nicolas, J. Holovsky, Z. Remes, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Perspectives for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1545–1551 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Record Infrared Internal Quantum Efficiency in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Dielectric/Metal Rear Reflectors,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1243–1249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(10), e106 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
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Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
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Bandiello, E.

C. Momblona, O. Malinkiewicz, C. Roldán-Carmona, A. Soriano, L. Gil-Escrig, E. Bandiello, M. Scheepers, E. Edri, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081504 (2014).
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Barber, G. D.

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
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Barkhouse, D. A. R.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
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Barraud, L.

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benick, J.

Berginc, M.

M. Topič, A. Čampa, M. Filipič, M. Berginc, U. O. Krašovec, F. Smole, and U. Opara Krašovec, “Optical and electrical modelling and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S425–S430 (2010).
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Bläsi, B.

Boccard, M.

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
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Bolink, H. J.

C. Momblona, O. Malinkiewicz, C. Roldán-Carmona, A. Soriano, L. Gil-Escrig, E. Bandiello, M. Scheepers, E. Edri, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081504 (2014).
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Bonnet-Eymard, M.

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
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Bremner, S. P.

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
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Brzozowski, L.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bugnon, G.

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campa, A.

M. Topič, A. Čampa, M. Filipič, M. Berginc, U. O. Krašovec, F. Smole, and U. Opara Krašovec, “Optical and electrical modelling and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S425–S430 (2010).
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Catchpole, K. R.

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
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Chang, J. A.

J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C.-S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. Il Seok, “Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-C.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
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Chen, W.

D. Xiong and W. Chen, “Recent progress on tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(4), 371–389 (2012).
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Choi, M.-S.

J. H. Seo, D.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, M. Song, M.-S. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, H. W. Lee, Y. C. Park, J.-D. Kwon, K.-S. Nam, Y. Jeong, J.-W. Kang, and C. S. Kim, “High efficiency inorganic/organic hybrid tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4523–4527 (2012).
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de Nicolas, S. M.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Wolf, S.

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

P. Löper, B. Niesen, S.-J. Moon, S. Martin de Nicolas, J. Holovsky, Z. Remes, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Perspectives for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1545–1551 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Record Infrared Internal Quantum Efficiency in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Dielectric/Metal Rear Reflectors,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1243–1249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(10), e106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Debnath, R.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Descoeudres, A.

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Record Infrared Internal Quantum Efficiency in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Dielectric/Metal Rear Reflectors,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1243–1249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Despeisse, M.

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dodge, M. J.

Dou, L.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duan, H.-S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edri, E.

C. Momblona, O. Malinkiewicz, C. Roldán-Carmona, A. Soriano, L. Gil-Escrig, E. Bandiello, M. Scheepers, E. Edri, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eisenlohr, J.

Emery, K.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, F. Z.

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Filipic, M.

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, A. Čampa, M. Filipič, M. Berginc, U. O. Krašovec, F. Smole, and U. Opara Krašovec, “Optical and electrical modelling and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S425–S430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujishima, D.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% Record efficiency HIT solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 96–99 (2014).
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Geisz, J.

S. Kurtz and J. Geisz, “Multijunction solar cells for conversion of concentrated sunlight to electricity,” Opt. Express 18(S1), 73–78 (2010).
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Gershon, T.

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, C. Sturdevant, and S. Guha, “Perovskite-kesterite monolithic tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 173902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gil-Escrig, L.

C. Momblona, O. Malinkiewicz, C. Roldán-Carmona, A. Soriano, L. Gil-Escrig, E. Bandiello, M. Scheepers, E. Edri, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Glunz, S. W.

A. Richter, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Reassessment of the Limiting Efficiency for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1184–1191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

Grätzel, M.

J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C.-S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. Il Seok, “Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
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A. J. Moulé, H. J. Snaith, M. Kaiser, H. Klesper, D. M. Huang, M. Grätzel, and K. Meerholz, “Optical description of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. I. Measurement of layer optical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073111 (2009).
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Green, M.

M. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
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Green, M. A.

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, C. Sturdevant, and S. Guha, “Perovskite-kesterite monolithic tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 173902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gunawan, O.

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, C. Sturdevant, and S. Guha, “Perovskite-kesterite monolithic tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 173902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hashiguchi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haug, F.-J.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, B. Niesen, S.-J. Moon, S. Martin de Nicolas, J. Holovsky, Z. Remes, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Perspectives for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1545–1551 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heo, J. H.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical Management for Colorful, Efficient, and Stable Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanostructured Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
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J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C.-S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. Il Seok, “Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hermle, M.

J. Eisenlohr, J. Benick, M. Peters, B. Bläsi, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Hexagonal sphere gratings for enhanced light trapping in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A111–A119 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Richter, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Reassessment of the Limiting Efficiency for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1184–1191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ho-Baillie, A.

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
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M. Imaizumi, M. Takahashi, and T. Takamoto, “JAXA’s strategy for development of high-performance space photovoltaics,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 128–131.

Tang, J.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Teuscher, J.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Todorov, T.

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, C. Sturdevant, and S. Guha, “Perovskite-kesterite monolithic tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 173902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tohoda, S.

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% Record efficiency HIT solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Topic, M.

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. Midem – J. Microelectron. Electron. Components Mater. 41, 264–271 (2011).

M. Topič, A. Čampa, M. Filipič, M. Berginc, U. O. Krašovec, F. Smole, and U. Opara Krašovec, “Optical and electrical modelling and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S425–S430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Torres, P.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tscharner, R.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanecek, M.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.-H.

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Werner, J.

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

White, T. P.

Wyrsch, N.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, D.

D. Xiong and W. Chen, “Recent progress on tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(4), 371–389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yano, A.

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% Record efficiency HIT solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshimura, N.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

You, J.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yum, J.-H.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, B. Niesen, S.-J. Moon, S. Martin de Nicolas, J. Holovsky, Z. Remes, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Perspectives for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1545–1551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yum, Y.

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

Yun, J. H.

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419–3423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zakeeruddin, S. M.

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. H. Seo, D.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, M. Song, M.-S. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, H. W. Lee, Y. C. Park, J.-D. Kwon, K.-S. Nam, Y. Jeong, J.-W. Kang, and C. S. Kim, “High efficiency inorganic/organic hybrid tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4523–4527 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

APL Mater. (1)

C. Momblona, O. Malinkiewicz, C. Roldán-Carmona, A. Soriano, L. Gil-Escrig, E. Bandiello, M. Scheepers, E. Edri, and H. J. Bolink, “Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm,” APL Mater. 2(8), 081504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Todorov, T. Gershon, O. Gunawan, C. Sturdevant, and S. Guha, “Perovskite-kesterite monolithic tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 173902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Topič, A. Čampa, M. Filipič, M. Berginc, U. O. Krašovec, F. Smole, and U. Opara Krašovec, “Optical and electrical modelling and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S425–S430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

D. Xiong and W. Chen, “Recent progress on tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(4), 371–389 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (7)

A. Richter, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Reassessment of the Limiting Efficiency for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1184–1191 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, S. Okamoto, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of More Than 25% Conversion Efficiency With Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, B. Niesen, S.-J. Moon, S. Martin de Nicolas, J. Holovsky, Z. Remes, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites: Perspectives for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1545–1551 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% Record efficiency HIT solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Record Infrared Internal Quantum Efficiency in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Dielectric/Metal Rear Reflectors,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(4), 1243–1249 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, A. Descoeudres, L. Barraud, F. Z. Fernandez, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, C. Ballif, and S. De Wolf, “Current Losses at the Front of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Inf. Midem – J. Microelectron. Electron. Components Mater. (1)

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. Midem – J. Microelectron. Electron. Components Mater. 41, 264–271 (2011).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

N. J. Jeon, H. G. Lee, Y. C. Kim, J. Seo, J. H. Noh, J. Lee, and S. I. Seok, “o-Methoxy substituents in spiro-OMeTAD for efficient inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(22), 7837–7840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vanecek, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Moulé, H. J. Snaith, M. Kaiser, H. Klesper, D. M. Huang, M. Grätzel, and K. Meerholz, “Optical description of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. I. Measurement of layer optical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073111 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (4)

G. D. Barber, P. G. Hoertz, S.-H. A. Lee, N. M. Abrams, J. Mikulca, T. E. Mallouk, P. Liska, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Utilization of Direct and Diffuse Sunlight in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell — Silicon Photovoltaic Hybrid Concentrator System,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(6), 581–585 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, B. B. Niesen, J. Werner, S.-J. Moon, M. Filipič, M. Topič, Y. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index of methyl ammonium lead halide determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 66–71 (2015).

H. J. Snaith, “Perovskites: The Emergence of a New Era for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3623–3630 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic Halide Perovskites: Sharp Optical Absorption Edge and Its Relation to Photovoltaic Performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(10), e106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical Management for Colorful, Efficient, and Stable Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanostructured Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

D. Liu and T. L. Kelly, “Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C.-S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. Il Seok, “Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. C. Baker-Finch and K. R. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419–3423 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Bonnet-Eymard, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, F. Sculati-Meillaud, M. Despeisse, and C. Ballif, “Optimized short-circuit current mismatch in multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 120–125 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the simulated architectures: A) Four-terminal device, where individual CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and silicon cells are optically stacked. B) Two-terminal device with CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and silicon cells connected in series. On the left side textured wafers (front surface) and layers deposited on top by conformal growth are shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A) Real part n and imaginary part k of the refractive index of Spiro-OMeTAD. B) VASE experimental spectra (symbols) and calculated spectra (lines) of Spiro-MeOTAD on c-Si substrate. C) Reflection and transmission experimental spectra (symbols) and calculated spectra (lines) on a glass and c-Si substrates.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflection and absorption plots for the flat four-terminal tandem configuration without the MgF2 anti-reflection layer. A) Reflection of the tandem stack, and absorption in the active layers. B) Parasitic absorption of layers in the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite cell. Dashed lines represent the optimal results of the constrained case, while full lines show optimum results when the thicknesses were unconstrained. Grey circle symbols in the top plot represent the measured EQE of a SHJ cell [35].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflection and absorption plots for the flat two-terminal tandem configuration. A) Reflection of the tandem stack and absorption in the active layers. B) Parasitic absorption of layers in the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite cell (y-scale changes after wavelength > 600 nm). Dashed lines represent the optimal results of the constrained case, while full lines show optimum results of the unconstrained case.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Angular dependence of Jsc of the two-terminal tandem device. Full lines represent unconstrained thicknesses, while dashed lines show the results for constrained thicknesses. Above x-axis schematics show the incident angle.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reflection and absorption plots for the textured two-terminal tandem configuration. A) Reflection of the tandem stack and absorption in the active layers. B) Parasitic absorption of layers in the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite cell (y-scale changes after wavelength > 600 nm). Dashed lines represent the optimal results of the constrained case, while full lines show optimum results of the unconstrained case.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Layer thickness constraints for the perovskite cell and references to the refractive indices of simulated layers, cf. Fig. 1. ‘Bottom’ ITO has different constraints for the four-terminal (4T) and two-terminal (2T) configuration.

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Table 2 Parameters of the dielectric function model, giving the best fit to the data.

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Table 3 One-diode parameters of single junction cells, extracted by fiting from literature data.

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Table 4 Optimal parameter values of the four-terminal tandem device with equivalent Jsc values of selected layers without the MgF2 anti-reflection layer.

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Table 5 Optimal layer thicknesses for constrained and unconstrained optimization of the two-terminal device with flat or textured bottom cell surface.

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Table 6 Estimated efficiencies of various four-terminal (4T) and two-terminal (2T) tandem configurations based on the one-diode model and simulated Jsc values.

Equations (4)

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ε= ε + i=1 4 ( ε s,i ε ) ω t,i 2 ω t,i 2 ω 2 +i Γ 0,i .
n= n + B× 10 4 λ 2 + C× 10 9 λ 4
f 4T = η Per + η SHJ .
f 2T = η Per + η SHJ  | J MPP Per J MPP SHJ |.

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