Abstract

We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the sub-THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those sub-THz spectra. A great difference between the sub-THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglycerides and the number of red blood cells were two dominant factors to have significant negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy

Annika M. K. Enejder, Tae-Woong Koo, Jeankun Oh, Martin Hunter, Slobodan Sasic, Michael S. Feld, and Gary L. Horowitz
Opt. Lett. 27(22) 2004-2006 (2002)

Canine cancer screening via ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy of serum proteins

Bryan D. Dickerson, Brian L. Geist, William B. Spillman, Jr., and John L. Robertson
Appl. Opt. 46(33) 8080-8088 (2007)

Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy

Xiang Zhao, Mingkun Zhang, Dongshan Wei, Yunxia Wang, Shihan Yan, Mengwan Liu, Xiang Yang, Ke Yang, Hong-Liang Cui, and Weiling Fu
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10) 4427-4437 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Sharma, J. D. Artiss, and B. Zak, “A method for the sequential colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides and cholesterol,” Clin. Biochem. 20(3), 167–172 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. Niehues, M. Heyden, D. A. Schmidt, and M. Havenith, “Exploring hydrophobicity by THz absorption spectroscopy of solvated amino acids,” Faraday Discuss. 150, 193–207 (discussion 257–292) (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1), 42–48 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. C. Guyton and J. E. Hall, “The cell and its function,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th ed. (Elsevier Saunders, 2006).
  11. D.-K. Kim, J.-H. Won, V. V. Meriakri, and E. E. Chigrai, “Device for the non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration by millimeter waves and method thereof”, US patent 7371217 B2, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
  12. C.-K. Sun, Y.-F. Tsai, and H. Chen, “Method and device for detecting a blood glucose level using an electromagnetic wave,” US patent 20130289370 A1, National Taiwan University.
  13. H. Chen, T.-H. Chen, T.-F. Tseng, J.-T. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Fu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Tsai, Y.-Y. Huang, E. Y. Chuang, Y. J. Hwang, and C. K. Sun, “High-sensitivity in vivo THz transmission imaging of early human breast cancer in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21552–21562 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Guidance for Industry-Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials to Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, http://www.fda.gov/downloads/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm127505.pdf
  21. J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  23. http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/faqs/ .
  24. A. C. Guyton and J. E. Hall, “Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th ed. (Elsevier Saunders, 2006).
  25. MedlinePlus, A1C test”, 2014. ( http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003640.htm ).
  26. ATP III At-A-Glance: Quick Desk Reference, 2001. ( http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/current/cholesterol-guidelines/quick-desk-reference-html.htm )
  27. B. Ung, A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “High-refractive-index composite materials for terahertz waveguides: trade-off between index contrast and absorption loss,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 917–921 (2011).
  28. S. A. Maier, “Electromagnetic Material,” in Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007).
  29. S. Ghahramani, “More Expectation and Variance,” in Fundamentals of Probability (Pearson, 2005).
  30. B. Madsen, “Assessment of Relationship,” in Statistics for Non-statisticians (Springer, 2008).
  31. SPSS software introduction, ( http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/ ).
  32. R. A. Fisher, “Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population,” Biometrika 10(4), 507–521 (1915).
  33. B. Madsen, “Analysis of Qualitative Data,” in Statistics for Non-statisticians (Springer, 2008).
  34. D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, “Lipid Biosynthesis,” in Principle of Biochemistry, 5th ed. (W. H. Freeman, 2008).

2014 (1)

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. Sharma, J. D. Artiss, and B. Zak, “A method for the sequential colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides and cholesterol,” Clin. Biochem. 20(3), 167–172 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1915 (1)

R. A. Fisher, “Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population,” Biometrika 10(4), 507–521 (1915).

Allen, S. J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angeluts, A. A.

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Artiss, J. D.

A. Sharma, J. D. Artiss, and B. Zak, “A method for the sequential colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides and cholesterol,” Clin. Biochem. 20(3), 167–172 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker, H. J.

K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Born, B.

S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bründermann, E.

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerón, J. J.

J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, T.-H.

Cherkasova, O. P.

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.-M.

Chuang, E. Y.

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuenca, R.

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

Dubois, C.

Dupuis, A.

Fisher, R. A.

R. A. Fisher, “Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population,” Biometrika 10(4), 507–521 (1915).

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, S.-C.

Garcia-Araez, N.

K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruebele, M.

S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Havenith, M.

G. Niehues, M. Heyden, D. A. Schmidt, and M. Havenith, “Exploring hydrophobicity by THz absorption spectroscopy of solvated amino acids,” Faraday Discuss. 150, 193–207 (discussion 257–292) (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hennemann, C.

J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heugen, U.

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heyden, M.

G. Niehues, M. Heyden, D. A. Schmidt, and M. Havenith, “Exploring hydrophobicity by THz absorption spectroscopy of solvated amino acids,” Faraday Discuss. 150, 193–207 (discussion 257–292) (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-W.

Huang, Y.-Y.

Huh, Y. M.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y. J.

Hwang, Y.-J.

Jeong, K.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-C.

Lavin, S.

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

Leitner, D. M.

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.-T.

Lu, J.-Y.

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Subiela, S.

J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, H.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muro, J.

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

Nazarov, M. M.

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Niehues, G.

G. Niehues, M. Heyden, D. A. Schmidt, and M. Havenith, “Exploring hydrophobicity by THz absorption spectroscopy of solvated amino acids,” Faraday Discuss. 150, 193–207 (discussion 257–292) (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtake, H.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

Paparo, D.

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pastor, J.

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piatkowski, L.

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaxco, K. W.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reese, G.

C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, C. B.

C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sarukura, N.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasakawa, H.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, D. A.

G. Niehues, M. Heyden, D. A. Schmidt, and M. Havenith, “Exploring hydrophobicity by THz absorption spectroscopy of solvated amino acids,” Faraday Discuss. 150, 193–207 (discussion 257–292) (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwaab, G.

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, J. D. Artiss, and B. Zak, “A method for the sequential colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides and cholesterol,” Clin. Biochem. 20(3), 167–172 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shkurinov, A. P.

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Smirnova, I. N.

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoeffler, K.

Suh, J. S.

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C. K.

Sun, C.-K.

Tamura, A.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tecles, F.

J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tielrooij, K. J.

K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tominaga, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, Y.-F.

Tseng, T.-F.

Ung, B.

Vinas, L.

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zak, B.

A. Sharma, J. D. Artiss, and B. Zak, “A method for the sequential colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides and cholesterol,” Clin. Biochem. 20(3), 167–172 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. (1)

S. J. Kim, B. Born, M. Havenith, and M. Gruebele, “Real-time detection of protein-water dynamics upon protein folding by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 47(34), 6486–6489 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biometrika (1)

R. A. Fisher, “Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population,” Biometrika 10(4), 507–521 (1915).

Biophys. J. (2)

K. Yamamoto, K. Tominaga, H. Sasakawa, A. Tamura, H. Murakami, H. Ohtake, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids and polypeptides,” Biophys. J. 89(3), L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Tielrooij, D. Paparo, L. Piatkowski, H. J. Bakker, and M. Bonn, “Dielectric relaxation dynamics of water in model membranes probed by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(9), 2484–2492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Clin. Biochem. (1)

A. Sharma, J. D. Artiss, and B. Zak, “A method for the sequential colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides and cholesterol,” Clin. Biochem. 20(3), 167–172 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

G. Niehues, M. Heyden, D. A. Schmidt, and M. Havenith, “Exploring hydrophobicity by THz absorption spectroscopy of solvated amino acids,” Faraday Discuss. 150, 193–207 (discussion 257–292) (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. (1)

C. B. Reid, G. Reese, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 17(4), 774–778 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Jeong, Y. M. Huh, S. H. Kim, Y. Park, J. H. Son, S. J. Oh, and J. S. Suh, “Characterization of blood using terahertz waves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 107008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (1)

J. Muro, R. Cuenca, J. Pastor, L. Vinas, and S. Lavin, “Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni),” J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29(1), 40–44 (1998).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Wave Phenom. (1)

O. P. Cherkasova, M. M. Nazarov, I. N. Smirnova, A. A. Angeluts, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Application of time-domain THz spectroscopy for studying blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 185–188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

U. Heugen, G. Schwaab, E. Bründermann, M. Heyden, X. Yu, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, “Solute-induced retardation of water dynamics probed directly by terahertz spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(33), 12301–12306 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Protein Sci. (1)

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, “Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy,” Protein Sci. 15(5), 1175–1181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

K. J. Tielrooij, N. Garcia-Araez, M. Bonn, and H. J. Bakker, “Cooperativity in ion hydration,” Science 328(5981), 1006–1009 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vet. J. (1)

J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, C. Hennemann, and F. Tecles, “The effects of different anticoagulants on routine canine plasma biochemistry,” Vet. J. 167(3), 294–301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (14)

Guidance for Industry-Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials to Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, http://www.fda.gov/downloads/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm127505.pdf

B. Madsen, “Analysis of Qualitative Data,” in Statistics for Non-statisticians (Springer, 2008).

D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, “Lipid Biosynthesis,” in Principle of Biochemistry, 5th ed. (W. H. Freeman, 2008).

A. C. Guyton and J. E. Hall, “The cell and its function,” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th ed. (Elsevier Saunders, 2006).

D.-K. Kim, J.-H. Won, V. V. Meriakri, and E. E. Chigrai, “Device for the non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration by millimeter waves and method thereof”, US patent 7371217 B2, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

C.-K. Sun, Y.-F. Tsai, and H. Chen, “Method and device for detecting a blood glucose level using an electromagnetic wave,” US patent 20130289370 A1, National Taiwan University.

http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/faqs/ .

A. C. Guyton and J. E. Hall, “Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia” in Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th ed. (Elsevier Saunders, 2006).

MedlinePlus, A1C test”, 2014. ( http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003640.htm ).

ATP III At-A-Glance: Quick Desk Reference, 2001. ( http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/current/cholesterol-guidelines/quick-desk-reference-html.htm )

S. A. Maier, “Electromagnetic Material,” in Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007).

S. Ghahramani, “More Expectation and Variance,” in Fundamentals of Probability (Pearson, 2005).

B. Madsen, “Assessment of Relationship,” in Statistics for Non-statisticians (Springer, 2008).

SPSS software introduction, ( http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/ ).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Self-designed fluidic channel. (b) The PE cap with human blood. (c) The blood injection process, with a portable THz spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three-times measured absorption coefficients of bulk water shown as the top black, red, and blue dots. The bottom green dots show their standard deviations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Two time-domain traces of the THz pulse measured after the empty chamber and two corresponding traces measured after the chamber filled with blood. (b) The time-domain traces of two different blood samples. One was recorded for 1 minute and the other was recorded for 5 minutes. (c) The corresponding frequency-domain spectra of the traces shown in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The top line shows the absorption coefficient of water, and the other lines below show the different absorption coefficients of the whole blood samples, measured in the first minute, of the 28 patients with heparin added. Sample 1 and sample 2 marked in Fig. 5 correspond to the two samples introduced in Fig. 3(b) and 3(c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The spectral characteristics of the single blood sample recruited from one healthy volunteer. Black open square: blood absorptions coefficient without anticoagulant. Red solid circle: with heparin added. The absorption coefficient showed no difference at 270GHz (< 1%), and the difference increased with frequency to 4cm−1 (2% of the absorption coefficient) at 500GHz and to 10cm−1 (5% of the absorption coefficient) at 820 GHz when heparin was added.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The sub-THz absorption coefficients of the 28 blood samples versus RBC count. (a) at 270GHz (negative correlation r = −0.383, two-tail p-value = 0.044) (b) at 820GHz (negative correlation r = 0.075, two-tail p-value = 0.736).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The sub-THz absorption coefficients of the 23 blood samples with their TG levels less than 200mg/dl (a) at 270GHz (r = −0.405, p = 0.056) (b) at 820GHz (negative correlation r = −0.437, p = 0.037).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TG concentration versus the absorption coefficients of the 13 blood samples having HbA1c < = 5.7%, T-CHO level <200mg/dl, and TG level <200mg/dl (a) at 270GHz (negative correlation r = −0.575, two-tail p-value = 0.04) (b) at 820GHz (negative correlation r = −0.611, two-tail p-value = 0.027).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

RBC count versus the absorption coefficients of the 13 blood samples having HbA1c < = 5.7%, T-CHO level <200mg/dl, and TG level <200mg/dl, (a) at 270GHz (r = −0.37, p = 0.213). (b) at 820GHz (r = 0.075, p = 0.807).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The correlations between the whole blood absorption coefficients and the examined variables. The range of each item is listed in parenthesis. r is the Pearson correlation coefficient, p is the two-tail p-value, and n is the sample number.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The correlations between the whole blood absorption coefficients and the examined variables. The whole blood samples have the limitations of HbA1c < = 5.7%, T-CHO level <200mg/dl, and TG level <200 mg/dl. The range of each item is listed in parenthesis. r is the Pearson correlation coefficient and p is the two-tail p-value. For all the items n = 13.

Tables Icon

Table 3 The density and different percentages of TG and cholesterol composition of different kinds of lipoprotein

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ref (ω)= E s (ω)T (ω) (PEair) e (iωd/c) T (ω) (airPE) ,
E sample (ω)= E s (ω)T (ω) (PEblood) e (iωdn(ω)/c) e (ωdκ(ω)/c) T (ω) (bloodPE) ,
κ blood (ω)( ln( | E sample (ω) E ref (ω) | 2 ) liquid thickness (d) )×c/2ω , n blood ( ω )(phase difference (Δ ϕ sampleref ))×c/ωd+1.
r= i=1 n ( x i x ¯ )( y i y ¯ ) i=1 n ( x i x ¯ ) 2 i=1 n ( y i y ¯ ) 2 ,

Metrics