Abstract

Quantum noise will be the dominant noise source for the advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction. Squeezing-enhanced laser interferometers have been recently demonstrated as a viable technique to reduce quantum noise. We propose two new methods of generating an error signal for matching the longitudinal phase of squeezed vacuum states of light to the phase of the laser interferometer output field. Both provide a superior signal to the one used in previous demonstrations of squeezing applied to a gravitational-wave detector. We demonstrate that the new signals are less sensitive to misalignments and higher order modes, and result in an improved stability of the squeezing level. The new signals also offer the potential of reducing the overall rms phase noise and optical losses, each of which would contribute to achieving a higher level of squeezing. The new error signals are a pivotal development towards realizing the goal of 6 dB and more of squeezing in advanced detectors and beyond.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (3)

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Oelker, L. Barsotti, S. Dwyer, D. Sigg, and N. Mavalvala, “Squeezed light for advanced gravitational-wave detectors and beyond,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21106–21121 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, S. S. Y. Chua, M. Evans, M. Factourovich, D. Gustafson, T. Isogai, K. Kawabe, A. Khalaidovski, P. K. Lam, M. Landry, N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. D. Meadors, C. M. Mow-Lowry, R. Schnabel, R. M. S. Schofield, N. Smith-Lefebvre, M. Stefszky, C. Vorvick, and D. Sigg, “Squeezed quadrature fluctuations in a gravitational wave detector using squeezed light,” Opt. Express 21, 19047–19060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhancing the sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nature Photon. 7, 613–619 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

K. Somiya, “Detector configuration of KAGRA–the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 29, 124007 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Hild and et al.., “Sensitivity studies for third-generation gravitational wave observatories,” Class. Quant. Grav. 28, 094013 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

G. M. Harry and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Grote and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “The GEO 600 status,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084003 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[Crossref]

Affeldt, C.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barsotti, L.

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chelkowski, S.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chua, S. S. Y.

Danzmann, K.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degallaix, J.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dooley, K. L.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schreiber, K. L. Dooley, H. Vahlbruch, and H. Grote, “Alignment sensing and control of squeezed states of light,” in preparation.

Dwyer, S.

Evans, M.

Factourovich, M.

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freise, A.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gräf, C.

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gray, M. B.

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grosse, N.

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grote, H.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Grote and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “The GEO 600 status,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084003 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Schreiber, K. L. Dooley, H. Vahlbruch, and H. Grote, “Alignment sensing and control of squeezed states of light,” in preparation.

Gustafson, D.

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hewitson, M.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hild, S.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild and et al.., “Sensitivity studies for third-generation gravitational wave observatories,” Class. Quant. Grav. 28, 094013 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hough, J.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Isogai, T.

Kawabe, K.

Khalaidovski, A.

Lam, P. K.

Landry, M.

Lastzka, N.

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leong, J.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leong, J. R.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lück, H.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mavalvala, N.

McClelland, D. E.

McKenzie, K.

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meadors, G. D.

Mehmet, M.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, E. E.

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mow-Lowry, C. M.

Oelker, E.

Prijatelj, M.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rowan, S.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rüdiger, A.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schilling, R.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schnabel, R.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, S. S. Y. Chua, M. Evans, M. Factourovich, D. Gustafson, T. Isogai, K. Kawabe, A. Khalaidovski, P. K. Lam, M. Landry, N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. D. Meadors, C. M. Mow-Lowry, R. Schnabel, R. M. S. Schofield, N. Smith-Lefebvre, M. Stefszky, C. Vorvick, and D. Sigg, “Squeezed quadrature fluctuations in a gravitational wave detector using squeezed light,” Opt. Express 21, 19047–19060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schofield, R. M. S.

Schreiber, E.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Schreiber, K. L. Dooley, H. Vahlbruch, and H. Grote, “Alignment sensing and control of squeezed states of light,” in preparation.

Sigg, D.

Slutsky, J.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J. R.

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith-Lefebvre, N.

Somiya, K.

K. Somiya, “Detector configuration of KAGRA–the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 29, 124007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sorazu, B.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stefszky, M.

Strain, K.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Strain, K. A.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vahlbruch, H.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schreiber, K. L. Dooley, H. Vahlbruch, and H. Grote, “Alignment sensing and control of squeezed states of light,” in preparation.

Vorvick, C.

Was, M.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Willke, B.

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winkler, W.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wittel, H.

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Class. Quant. Grav. (8)

G. M. Harry and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Somiya, “Detector configuration of KAGRA–the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 29, 124007 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Affeldt, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Hough, J. Leong, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, E. Schreiber, B. Sorazu, K. A. Strain, H. Vahlbruch, B. Willke, W. Winkler, and H. Wittel, “Advanced techniques in GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 224002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hild and et al.., “Sensitivity studies for third-generation gravitational wave observatories,” Class. Quant. Grav. 28, 094013 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Grote and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “The GEO 600 status,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084003 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Hild, H. Grote, J. Degallaix, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, A. Freise, M. Hewitson, J. Hough, H. Lück, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, J. R. Smith, and B. Willke, “DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quant. Grav. 26, 055012 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 084027 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wittel, H. Lück, C. Affeldt, K. L. Dooley, H. Grote, J. R. Leong, M. Prijatelj, E. Schreiber, J. Slutsky, K. Strain, M. Was, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600,” Class. Quant. Grav. 31, 065008 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. (1)

K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O. 7, S421–S428 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (1)

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhancing the sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nature Photon. 7, 613–619 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Grote, K. Danzmann, K. L. Dooley, R. Schnabel, J. Slutsky, and H. Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 181101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. Khalaidovski, “Beyond the quantum limit: a squeezed-light laser in GEO 600,” Ph.D. thesis, Leibniz University Hannover (2011).

“A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nat. Phys.7, 962–965 (2011).
[Crossref]

The Virgo Collaboration, “Advanced Virgo baseline design,” Tech. Rep.VIR-027A-09 (2009).

E. Schreiber, K. L. Dooley, H. Vahlbruch, and H. Grote, “Alignment sensing and control of squeezed states of light,” in preparation.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Phasor diagram of a squeezed state (∆X1X2 1). The factor r describes the degree of squeezing and anti-squeezing for a pure state and ϕ describes the mismatch in angle between the squeezing and measurement quadratures. For application in a GW detector, phase squeezing is injected to the anti-symmetric port.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the GEO 600 interferometer together with the squeezing source. The three methods presented in this article for generating a squeezer phase error signal are highlighted: OMC reflected, OMC transmitted, and pick-off. Only one path is used at a time and the control signal is fed back to the error point of the PLL which locks the main squeezer laser to the interferometer main laser. Complete phase control is accomplished through the following two additional stages: locking of the green pump beam phase to the OPA and a noiselock loop.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phase noise detected by the beat of the CCSBs and the carrier light in OMC transmission. The in-loop error signal (blue) is suppressed to or below sensor noise (black). The free-running phase noise (red) is computed from the in-loop spectrum and the known loop shape. The dashed line shows the integrated rms within the control band of 2 kHz. The in-loop phase noise is 4 mrad rms. Spectra are created from a digitally-acquired 240 sec long time series with 0.25 Hz binwidth and 120 averages.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Amplitude spectra of the band-limited-rms of strain sensitivity in a shot-noise-limited frequency band from 4 kHz to 5 kHz. Stability of the squeezing level when using the OMC transmission and OMC reflection signals is demonstrated. The increase in fluctuations of the squeezing level when the standard pick-off signal is used is due to lock point errors from HOMs. All spectra are normalized to the mean of the non-squeezed spectra and the relative levels indicate the amount of squeezing present. Note, however, that the squeezing level is not always perfectly steady in time, so the levels in this figure do not necessarily represent the best possible squeezing.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Schemes studied for generating a squeezer phase error signal. Signal-to-noise ratios are compared as well as the likelihood of lock point errors as determined by the quantity of HOMs in the signal fields. Field amplitudes and the SNR are normalized to 1.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Phase noises from known sources when the OMC transmitted signal is used. The quadrature sum is 16.1 mrad rms.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Important aspects to take into consideration when selecting which of the three squeezing angle error signals to use and when thinking about how to improve them.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V s = V s cos 2 ϕ + V a sin 2 ϕ
V a = V a cos 2 ϕ + V s sin 2 ϕ
SNR E 1 E 2 P

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