Abstract

We present the results of a theoretical analysis focused on three-dimensional optical trapping of non-spherical gold nanoparticles using a tightly focused laser beam (i.e. optical tweezers). We investigate how the wavelength of the trapping beam enhances trapping stiffness and determines the stable orientation of nonspherical nanoparticles in the optical trap which reveals the optimal trapping wavelength. We consider nanoparticles with diameters being between 20 nm and 254 nm illuminated by a highly focused laser beam at wavelength 1064 nm and compare our results based on the coupled-dipole method with published theoretical and experimental data. We demonstrate that by considering the non-spherical morphology of the nanoparticle we can explain the experimentally observed three-dimensional trapping of plasmonic nanoparticles with size higher than 170 nm. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the trapping and alignment of real metal nanoparticles in optical tweezers and their applications as optically controllable nanosources of heat or probes of weak forces and torques.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (6)

P. Jákl, V. Arzola, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, K. Volke-Sepúlveda, and P. Zemánek, “Optical sorting of nonspherical and living microobjects in moving interference structures,” Opt. Express 22, 29746–29760 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Maslov and V. Astratov, “Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 121113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Simpson, “Inhomogeneous and anisotropic particles in optical traps: Physical behaviour and applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 146, 81–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Arzola, P. Jákl, L. Chvátal, and P. Zemánek, “Rotation, oscillation and hydrodynamic synchronization of optically trapped oblate spheroidal microparticles,” Opt. Express 22, 16207–16221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Phillips, M. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. Ho, D. Carberry, M. Miles, and S. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nature Photon. 8, 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Brzobohatý, M. Šiler, J. Trojek, L. Chvátal, V. Karásek, A. Paták, Z. Pokorná, F. Mika, and P. Zemánek, “Three-dimensional optical trapping of a plasmonic nanoparticle using low numerical aperture optical tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

O. Brzobohatý, M. Šiler, J. Ježek, P. Jákl, and P. Zemánek, “Optical manipulation of aerosol droplets using a holographic dual and single beam trap,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4601–4604 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kyrsting, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Mapping 3D focal intensity exposes the stable trapping positions of single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 31–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. W. Bowman and M. J. Padgett, “Optical trapping and binding,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 026401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čizmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nature Photon. 7, 123–127 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. Trojek, L. Chvátal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical alignment and confinement of an ellipsoidal nanorod in optical tweezers: a theoretical study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 1224–1236 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Myroshnychenko, J. Nelayah, G. Adamo, N. Geuquet, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, K. F. MacDonald, L. Henrard, L. M. Liz-Marzan, N. I. Zheludev, M. Kociak, and F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon spectroscopy and imaging of individual gold nanodecahedra: A combined optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy study,” Nano Lett. 12, 4172–4180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Das and T. K. Chini, “Spectroscopy and imaging of plasmonic modes over a single decahedron gold nanoparticle: A combined experimental and numerical study,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25969–25976 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. M. Mihiretie, P. Snabre, J. C. Loudet, and B. Pouligny, “Radiation pressure makes ellipsoidal particles tumble,” Europhys. Lett. 100, 48005 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code adda: Capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112, 2234–2247 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Messina, E. Cavallaro, A. Cacciola, M. A. Iatì, P. G. Gucciardi, F. Borghese, P. Denti, R. Saija, G. Compagnini, M. Meneghetti, V. Amendola, and O. M. Maragò, “Plasmon-enhanced optical trapping of gold nanoaggregates with selected optical properties,” ACS Nano 5, 905–913 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Computational study of the optical trapping of ellipsoidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053808 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Application of the discrete dipole approximation to optical trapping calculations of inhomogeneous and anisotropic particles,” Opt. Express 19, 16526–16541 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “The holographic optical micro-manipulation system based on counter-propagating beams,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50–56 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Dynamic size tuning of multidimensional optically bound matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, J. Trojek, and P. Zemánek, “Static and dynamic behavior of two optically bound microparticles in a standing wave,” Opt. Express 19, 19613–19626 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. Ou-Yang and M.-T. Wei, “Complex fluids: Probing mechanical properties of biological systems with optical tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 61, 421–440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia and P. Zemánek, “Gripped by light: Optical binding,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1767–1791 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Gutierrez-Medina, J. O. Andreasson, W. J. Greenleaf, A. LaPorta, and S. M. Block, “An optical apparatus for rotation and trapping,” Methods Enzymol. 475, 377–404 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hinojosa-Alvarado and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Geometrical optics calculation of forces and torques produced by a ringed beam on a prolate spheroid,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1651–1658 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

R. Saija, P. Denti, F. Borghese, O. M. Maragò, and M. A. Iatì, “Optical trapping calculations for metal nanoparticles. comparison with experimental data for au and ag spheres,” Opt. Express 17, 10231–10241 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lu, M. Rycenga, S. E. Skrabalak, B. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Chemical synthesis of novel plasmonic nanoparticles,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60, 167–192 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Karásek, O. Brzobohatý, and P. Zemánek, “Longitudinal optical binding of several spherical particles studied by the coupled dipole method,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 034009 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Novo, V. Myroshnychenko, A. M. Funston, A. Sanchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Perez-Juste, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, “Spectroscopy, imaging, and modeling of individual gold decahedra,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18623–18631 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Optical angular momentum transfer by Laguerre-Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 625–638 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Sosa-Martínez and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Optical forces on a Mie spheroidal particle arbitrarily oriented in a counterpropagating trap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 2109–2116 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

F. Xu, J. A. Lock, G. Gouesbet, and C. Tropea, “Radiation torque exerted on a spheroid: Analytical solution,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013843 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Jonáš and P. Zemánek, “Light at work: The use of optical forces for particle manipulation, sorting, and analysis,” Electophoresis 29, 4813–4851 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent advances in optical tweezers,” Ann. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205–228 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, “Long-range one-dimensional longitudinal optical binding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16, 4991–4999 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

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T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knöner, A. M. Brańczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S196–S203 (2007).
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O. Brzobohatý, M. Šiler, J. Trojek, L. Chvátal, V. Karásek, A. Paták, Z. Pokorná, F. Mika, and P. Zemánek, “Three-dimensional optical trapping of a plasmonic nanoparticle using low numerical aperture optical tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8106 (2014).
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P. Jákl, V. Arzola, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, K. Volke-Sepúlveda, and P. Zemánek, “Optical sorting of nonspherical and living microobjects in moving interference structures,” Opt. Express 22, 29746–29760 (2014).
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A. Arzola, P. Jákl, L. Chvátal, and P. Zemánek, “Rotation, oscillation and hydrodynamic synchronization of optically trapped oblate spheroidal microparticles,” Opt. Express 22, 16207–16221 (2014).
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O. Brzobohatý, M. Šiler, J. Ježek, P. Jákl, and P. Zemánek, “Optical manipulation of aerosol droplets using a holographic dual and single beam trap,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4601–4604 (2013).
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J. Trojek, L. Chvátal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical alignment and confinement of an ellipsoidal nanorod in optical tweezers: a theoretical study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 1224–1236 (2012).
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T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “The holographic optical micro-manipulation system based on counter-propagating beams,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50–56 (2011).
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O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, J. Trojek, and P. Zemánek, “Static and dynamic behavior of two optically bound microparticles in a standing wave,” Opt. Express 19, 19613–19626 (2011).
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O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Dynamic size tuning of multidimensional optically bound matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
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K. Dholakia and P. Zemánek, “Gripped by light: Optical binding,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1767–1791 (2010).
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V. Karásek, O. Brzobohatý, and P. Zemánek, “Longitudinal optical binding of several spherical particles studied by the coupled dipole method,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 034009 (2009).
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V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, “Long-range one-dimensional longitudinal optical binding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
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A. Jonáš and P. Zemánek, “Light at work: The use of optical forces for particle manipulation, sorting, and analysis,” Electophoresis 29, 4813–4851 (2008).
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T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, and P. Zemánek, “An optical nanotrap array movable over a milimetre range,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 197–203 (2006).
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T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, M. Šerý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 0351051(2006).
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T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
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Zheludev, N. I.

V. Myroshnychenko, J. Nelayah, G. Adamo, N. Geuquet, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, K. F. MacDonald, L. Henrard, L. M. Liz-Marzan, N. I. Zheludev, M. Kociak, and F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon spectroscopy and imaging of individual gold nanodecahedra: A combined optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy study,” Nano Lett. 12, 4172–4180 (2012).
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ACS Nano (1)

E. Messina, E. Cavallaro, A. Cacciola, M. A. Iatì, P. G. Gucciardi, F. Borghese, P. Denti, R. Saija, G. Compagnini, M. Meneghetti, V. Amendola, and O. M. Maragò, “Plasmon-enhanced optical trapping of gold nanoaggregates with selected optical properties,” ACS Nano 5, 905–913 (2011).
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Ann. Rev. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent advances in optical tweezers,” Ann. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205–228 (2008).
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Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, “High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 36, 171–190 (2007).
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Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (2)

D. Ou-Yang and M.-T. Wei, “Complex fluids: Probing mechanical properties of biological systems with optical tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 61, 421–440 (2010).
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X. Lu, M. Rycenga, S. E. Skrabalak, B. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Chemical synthesis of novel plasmonic nanoparticles,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60, 167–192 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, and P. Zemánek, “An optical nanotrap array movable over a milimetre range,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 197–203 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
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O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Dynamic size tuning of multidimensional optically bound matter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 101105 (2011).
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I. Ricárdez-Vargas, P. Rodríguez-Montero, R. Ramos-García, and K. Volke-Sepúlveda, “Modulated optical sieve for sorting of polydisperse microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121116 (2006).
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A. Maslov and V. Astratov, “Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 121113 (2014).
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Electophoresis (1)

A. Jonáš and P. Zemánek, “Light at work: The use of optical forces for particle manipulation, sorting, and analysis,” Electophoresis 29, 4813–4851 (2008).
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Europhys. Lett. (2)

K. Ladavac and D. G. Grier, “Colloidal hydrodynamic coupling in concentric optical vortices,” Europhys. Lett. 70, 548–554 (2005).
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B. M. Mihiretie, P. Snabre, J. C. Loudet, and B. Pouligny, “Radiation pressure makes ellipsoidal particles tumble,” Europhys. Lett. 100, 48005 (2012).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. B. Schaub, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).
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J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knöner, A. M. Brańczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S196–S203 (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. J. Wiley, S. H. Im, Z.-Y. Li, J. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, and Y. Xia, “Maneuvering the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures through shape-controlled synthesis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 15666–15675 (2006).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

P. Das and T. K. Chini, “Spectroscopy and imaging of plasmonic modes over a single decahedron gold nanoparticle: A combined experimental and numerical study,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 25969–25976 (2012).
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J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, C. Novo, V. Myroshnychenko, A. M. Funston, A. Sanchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Perez-Juste, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, “Spectroscopy, imaging, and modeling of individual gold decahedra,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18623–18631 (2009).
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J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

M. Reichert and H. Stark, “Circling particles and drafting in optical vortices,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S4085–S4094 (2004).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

S. H. Simpson, “Inhomogeneous and anisotropic particles in optical traps: Physical behaviour and applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 146, 81–99 (2014).
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M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code adda: Capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112, 2234–2247 (2011).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “The holographic optical micro-manipulation system based on counter-propagating beams,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 50–56 (2011).
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Methods Enzymol. (1)

B. Gutierrez-Medina, J. O. Andreasson, W. J. Greenleaf, A. LaPorta, and S. M. Block, “An optical apparatus for rotation and trapping,” Methods Enzymol. 475, 377–404 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (3)

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937–1942 (2005).
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V. Myroshnychenko, J. Nelayah, G. Adamo, N. Geuquet, J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, I. Pastoriza-Santos, K. F. MacDonald, L. Henrard, L. M. Liz-Marzan, N. I. Zheludev, M. Kociak, and F. Javier Garcia de Abajo, “Plasmon spectroscopy and imaging of individual gold nanodecahedra: A combined optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy study,” Nano Lett. 12, 4172–4180 (2012).
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A. Kyrsting, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Mapping 3D focal intensity exposes the stable trapping positions of single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 31–35 (2013).
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Nature (1)

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426, 421–424 (2003).
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Nature Photon. (2)

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čizmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nature Photon. 7, 123–127 (2013).
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D. Phillips, M. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. Ho, D. Carberry, M. Miles, and S. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nature Photon. 8, 400–405 (2014).
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Opt. Express (11)

A. Arzola, P. Jákl, L. Chvátal, and P. Zemánek, “Rotation, oscillation and hydrodynamic synchronization of optically trapped oblate spheroidal microparticles,” Opt. Express 22, 16207–16221 (2014).
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P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light,” Opt. Express 11, 446–451 (2003).
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K. Bonin, B. Kourmanov, and T. Walker, “Light torque nanocontrol, nanomotors and nanorockers,” Opt. Express 10, 984–989 (2002).
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J. K. C. Toussaint, M. Liu, M. Pelton, J. Pesic, M. J. Guffey, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and N. F. Scherer, “Plasmon resonance-based optical trapping of single and multiple Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 12017–12029 (2007).
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R. Saija, P. Denti, F. Borghese, O. M. Maragò, and M. A. Iatì, “Optical trapping calculations for metal nanoparticles. comparison with experimental data for au and ag spheres,” Opt. Express 17, 10231–10241 (2009).
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M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16, 4991–4999 (2008).
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K. Ladavac and D. Grier, “Microoptomechanical pumps assembled and driven by holographic optical vortex arrays,” Opt. Express 12, 1144–1149 (2004).
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O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, J. Trojek, and P. Zemánek, “Static and dynamic behavior of two optically bound microparticles in a standing wave,” Opt. Express 19, 19613–19626 (2011).
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N. K. Metzger, E. M. Wright, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Visualization of optical binding of microparticles using a femtosecond fiber optical trap,” Opt. Express 14, 3677–3687 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jákl, V. Arzola, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, K. Volke-Sepúlveda, and P. Zemánek, “Optical sorting of nonspherical and living microobjects in moving interference structures,” Opt. Express 22, 29746–29760 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Application of the discrete dipole approximation to optical trapping calculations of inhomogeneous and anisotropic particles,” Opt. Express 19, 16526–16541 (2011).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. Bishop, T. Nieminen, N. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Xu, J. A. Lock, G. Gouesbet, and C. Tropea, “Radiation torque exerted on a spheroid: Analytical solution,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013843 (2008).
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S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Computational study of the optical trapping of ellipsoidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053808 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Čižmár, M. Šiler, M. Šerý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, “Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 0351051(2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

F. Xu, K. Ren, G. Gouesbet, X. Cai, and G. Gréhan, “Theoretical prediction of radiation pressure force exerted on a spheroid by an arbitrarily shaped beam,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 026613 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

N. K. Metzger, R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, R. L. Smith, K. Dholakia, and E. M. Wright, “Measurement of the restoring forces acting on two optically bound particles from normal mode correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 068102 (2007).
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V. Karásek, T. Čižmár, O. Brzobohatý, P. Zemánek, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, “Long-range one-dimensional longitudinal optical binding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143601 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Cheng, P. Chaikin, and T. Mason, “Light streak tracking of optically trapped thin microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 108303 (2002).
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Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

R. W. Bowman and M. J. Padgett, “Optical trapping and binding,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 026401 (2013).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

K. Dholakia and P. Zemánek, “Gripped by light: Optical binding,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1767–1791 (2010).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

O. Brzobohatý, M. Šiler, J. Trojek, L. Chvátal, V. Karásek, A. Paták, Z. Pokorná, F. Mika, and P. Zemánek, “Three-dimensional optical trapping of a plasmonic nanoparticle using low numerical aperture optical tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8106 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Trapping geometry of optical tweezers with high NA=1.2. A NP (yellow triangular prism) is trapped laterally on the optical axis and longitudinally slightly behind the beam focus. Its axial position strongly depends on the orientation of the particle with respect to the beam polarization and propagation. The red arrow denotes orientation of the incident electric field E propagating longitudinally along z axis, the blue and green arrow marks the axial optical force Fz and torque Ω acting on the NP, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption, scattering and extinction cross sections calculated for gold nanospheres of various diameter d reveal their spectral broadening and red-shift of their maximum with increase of the sphere size. The optical trap stiffness calculated for the same nanospheres placed on the beam axis of a single tightly focused beam of corresponding numerical aperture NA=1.2 is included. The maximum stiffness occurs when the trapping laser wavelength is detuned to the long-wavelength side from the plasmon resonance which is determined by the maximal value of the extinction cross-section Cext. Note that gold nanospheres of diameter larger than 170 nm cannot be optically trapped and therefore the stiffness curves are omitted. The stiffnesses and extinction cross-sections are normalized to their maximum value; absorption and scattering cross-sections are normalized to the maximum of Cext for each particle size.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gold NPs (diameter 100 nm British Biocell) observed by scanning electron microscopes (JEOL JSM-6700F, FEI Magellan 400). Right-hand column shows detailed images of various particle shapes: icosahedron, triangular prism, decahedron, and hexagonal prism.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stability study of a triangular prism NP of aspect ratio 0.15 and of the same volume as a sphere with the diameter equal to 25 nm illuminated by a focused laser beam (vacuum wavelength λvac = 1064 nm, NA 1.2, incident power 1 W) in the non-paraxial description [37, 57]. The first row shows the initial orientation of the studied object (θ = 0) and the positive direction of its rotation. The second row shows the optical force Fz acting on the object in the direction of the beam propagation as the function of the NP longitudinal position (z = 0 and z > 0 correspond to the position of beam focus and positions behind the beam focus, respectively) and rotation around the denoted axis. The third row shows the optical torque Ωi acting in direction i of the axis of rotation as the function of the NP longitudinal position and rotation around the denoted axis i. White curves denote equilibrium positions or orientations of the NP. Red curves at the torques maps remind the longitudinal equilibrium position of the NP. The inset in the middle shows the stable NP orientation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stability of a decahedron and triangular prism NP (aspect ratios 0.15 and 0.5) of various sizes illuminated by a focused beam. Sizes of NPs are defined by the volume of a sphere with corresponding diameter. The first row shows the initial orientation of the studied objects (θ = 0) and the direction of rotation. The second row shows the optical torque in the direction of axis of rotation z. (a) Decahedron is stably oriented in parallel with the polarization direction along x axis (i.e. along the vertical axis in the inset). (b) and (c) Smaller triangular prisms are oriented with their base in parallel with the field polarization (vertical axis x in the inset) while base of the larger ones is oriented perpendicularly (along y axis in the inset). The parameters of the beam are the same as in Fig. 4 and the orientation of the axes in the insets are the same as in the first row of Fig. 5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction cross sections and trap stiffnesses calculated for a) gold triangular prism with effective diameter 25 nm and b) nanosphere of the same volume. Spectral region with gray (white) background corresponds to the stable orientation of the NP in parallel with (perpendicular to) the beam polarization (as illustrated in the insets). Blue and red curves correspond to the longitudinal (κz) and lateral (κx) stiffness of the optical trap in cases when the NP is trapped in 3D, respectively. The plotted values of the extinction cross-section C ext and C ext correspond to the white and gray region and they are multiplied by 0.1 and 5, respectively, to be both visible in the same plot. All values for the triangular NP at plot a) are plotted relative to the maximal value of quantities obtained for the nanosphere from plot b). Note, that for example the trapping stiffnesses calculated for the triangular prism optically trapped at commonly used wavelength 1064 nm are about 5× larger when compared to the nanosphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of calculated lateral (κx) and longitudinal (κz) stiffnesses of optically trapped NPs of various effective diameters and shapes with experimental data presented by Hansen et al. [51]. We consider spheres, decahedron and triangular prisms with two aspect ratios (height to radius ratio 0.15 and 0.5).

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