Abstract

For experimental investigations of macroscopic quantum superpositions and the possible role of gravitational effects on the reduction of the corresponding quantum wave function it is beneficial to consider large mass, low frequency optomechanical systems. We report optical side-band cooling from room temperature for a 1.5×10−10 kg (mode mass), low frequency side-band resolved optomechanical system based on a 5 cm long Fabry-Perot cavity. By using high-quality Bragg mirrors for both the stationary and the micromechanical mirror we are able to construct an optomechanical cavity with an optical linewidth of 23 kHz. This, together with a resonator frequency of 315 kHz, makes the system operate firmly in the side-band resolved regime. With the presented optomechanical system parameters cooling close to the ground state is possible. This brings us one step closer to creating and verifying macroscopic quantum superpositions.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Optomechanical trampoline resonators

Dustin Kleckner, Brian Pepper, Evan Jeffrey, Petro Sonin, Susanna M. Thon, and Dirk Bouwmeester
Opt. Express 19(20) 19708-19716 (2011)

Straightforward method to measure optomechanically induced transparency

F. M. Buters, F. Luna, M. J. Weaver, H. J. Eerkens, K. Heeck, S. de Man, and D. Bouwmeester
Opt. Express 25(11) 12935-12943 (2017)

Cavity Opto-Mechanics

T.J. Kippenberg and K.J. Vahala
Opt. Express 15(25) 17172-17205 (2007)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” 1391–1452 arXiv preprint, arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).
  10. O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Physics 10, 271–277 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Kleckner, B. Pepper, E. Jeffrey, P. Sonin, S. M. Thon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical trampoline resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 19708 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. A. Phelps and P. Meystre, “Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063838 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2012 (4)

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Physics 10, 271–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. A. Phelps and P. Meystre, “Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063838 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Kleckner, B. Pepper, E. Jeffrey, P. Sonin, S. M. Thon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical trampoline resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 19708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. M.

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alegre, T. P. M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, M.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ament, L.

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anetsberger, G.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arndt, M.

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Physics 10, 271–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” 1391–1452 arXiv preprint, arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

Black, E. D.

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner, B. Pepper, E. Jeffrey, P. Sonin, S. M. Thon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical trampoline resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 19708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briant, T.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J. P.

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cicak, K.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clerk, A.

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohadon, P.-F.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deléglise, S.

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donner, T.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichenfield, M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliel, E.

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gavartin, E.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghobadi, R.

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girvin, S.

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gröblacher, S.

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammerer, K.

S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harlow, J.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, J. T.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornberger, K.

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Physics 10, 271–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeffrey, E.

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner, B. Pepper, E. Jeffrey, P. Sonin, S. M. Thon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical trampoline resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 19708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” 1391–1452 arXiv preprint, arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

Kleckner, D.

D. Kleckner, B. Pepper, E. Jeffrey, P. Sonin, S. M. Thon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical trampoline resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 19708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krause, A.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehnert, K.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquardt, F.

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” 1391–1452 arXiv preprint, arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

Marshall, W.

W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meystre, P.

G. A. Phelps and P. Meystre, “Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nooshi, N.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penrose, R.

W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, B.

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner, B. Pepper, E. Jeffrey, P. Sonin, S. M. Thon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical trampoline resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 19708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterson, R.

T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phelps, G. A.

G. A. Phelps and P. Meystre, “Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pikovski, I.

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pinard, M.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purdy, T.

T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Regal, C.

T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Riviere, R.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rivière, R.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

Simmonds, R.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simon, C.

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirois, A.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonin, P.

Teufel, J.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thon, S. M.

van den Brink, J.

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vanner, M. R.

S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weis, S.

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whittaker, J.

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson-Rae, I.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winger, M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zwerger, W.

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Physics (3)

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Physics 10, 271–277 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, R. Rivière, G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling of a micromechanical oscillator,” Nat. Physics 4, 415–419 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviere, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Physics 5, 509–514 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (6)

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. M. Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472, 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gröblacher, K. Hammerer, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field,” Nature 460, 724–727 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482, 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Teufel, T. Donner, D. Li, J. Harlow, M. Allman, K. Cicak, A. Sirois, J. Whittaker, K. Lehnert, and R. Simmonds, “Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state,” Nature 475, 359–363 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478, 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

D. Kleckner, I. Pikovski, E. Jeffrey, L. Ament, E. Eliel, J. van den Brink, and D. Bouwmeester, “Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system,” New J. Phys. 10, 095020 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Purdy, R. Peterson, P. Yu, and C. Regal, “Cavity optomechanics with Si3N4 membranes at cryogenic temperatures,” New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. A. Phelps and P. Meystre, “Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

B. Pepper, R. Ghobadi, E. Jeffrey, C. Simon, and D. Bouwmeester, “Optomechanical superpositions via nested interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. Chan, J. T. Hill, T. P. M. Alegre, A. Krause, and O. Painter, “Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Marshall, C. Simon, R. Penrose, and D. Bouwmeester, “Towards quantum superpositions of a mirror,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Wilson-Rae, N. Nooshi, W. Zwerger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Theory of ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator using dynamical backaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marquardt, J. P. Chen, A. Clerk, and S. Girvin, “Quantum theory of cavity-assisted sideband cooling of mechanical motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 093902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330, 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” 1391–1452 arXiv preprint, arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The laser scheme used for side-band cooling. Laser 1 is locked to a cavity resonance and laser 2 is locked to the first laser with a variable offset. Inset: Laser 2 is placed precisely one mechanical frequency below a cavity resonance for optimal cooling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified schematic of the optical setup. The frequency of laser 1 is locked to the optomechanical cavity using Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) technique. Laser 2 is locked to laser 1 via an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL). Laser 2 is tuned one free spectral range (FSR) apart from laser 1 to avoid interference at frequencies relevant to the experiment. The components displayed are: LO: local oscillator, BS: beam splitter, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, EOM: electro-optical modulator, OI: optical isolator and PI: proportional-integral feedback controller. Inset: optical image of the trampoline resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of the optomechanical system. (a) Optical cavity ring-down measurement with an exponential fit. (b) Mechanical thermal noise spectrum at 300K with a Lorentzian fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical side-band cooling. (a) Thermal mechanical noise spectra for Δ = ωlaserωcav = −2Ωm (top curve) and Δ = −Ωm (bottom curve). (b) Effective temperature. (c) Effective linewidth as a result of optical damping. (d) Mechanical frequency shift due to the optical spring effect.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T eff = Ω m k B n ¯ th Γ m + n ¯ min Γ opt Γ m + Γ opt ,
Γ eff = Γ m + P in κ ex ω cav 2 L 2 m Ω m ( Δ 2 + κ 2 / 4 ) [ κ ( Δ + Ω m ) 2 + κ 2 / 4 κ ( Δ Ω m ) 2 + κ 2 / 4 ] ,
δ Ω m = P in κ ex ω cav 2 L 2 m Ω m ( Δ 2 + κ 2 / 4 ) [ Δ + Ω m ( Δ + Ω m ) 2 + κ 2 / 4 + Δ Ω m ( Δ Ω m ) 2 + κ 2 / 4 ] ,

Metrics