Abstract

Photon time-of-flight (PTOF) spectroscopy enables the estimation of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid media by measuring the propagation time of short light pulses through turbid medium. The present investigation provides a comparison of the assessed absorption and reduced scattering coefficients from PTOF measurements of intralipid 20% and India ink-based optical phantoms covering a wide range of optical properties relevant for biological tissues and dairy products. Three different models are used to obtain the optical properties by fitting to measured temporal profiles: the Liemert-Kienle model (LKM), the diffusion model (DM) and a white Monte-Carlo (WMC) simulation-based algorithm. For the infinite space geometry, a very good agreement is found between the LKM and WMC, while the results obtained by the DM differ, indicating that the LKM can provide accurate estimation of the optical parameters beyond the limits of the diffusion approximation in a computational effective and accurate manner. This result increases the potential range of applications for PTOF spectroscopy within industrial and biomedical applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

2013 (7)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Tsuchikawa and M. Schwanninger, “A review of recent near infrared research for wood and paper (Part 2),” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 560–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Puszka, L. Di Sieno, A. D. Mora, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, G. Boso, A. Tosi, L. Hervé, A. Planat-Chrétien, A. Koenig, and J. M. Dinten, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1351–1365 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Simon, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Hybrid Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for anisotropically scattering semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Simon, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Time-resolved diffuse spectroscopy measurements using a hybrid Green's function for the radiative transfer equation,” Proc. SPIE 8799, 879906 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. H. A. Nielsen, A. A. Subash, F. D. Nielsen, A. B. Dahl, J. L. Skytte, S. Andersson-Engels, and D. Khoptyar, “Spectral characterizations of dairy products using photon time-of-flight spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 21(5), 375–383 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Johansson, M. Saleem, A. Sparén, J. Johansson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Broadband photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals and highly scattering plastics in the VIS and close NIR spectral ranges,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20941–20953 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3), 543–551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Single-fiber diffuse optical time-of-flight spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2877–2879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Karlsson, I. Fredriksson, M. Larsson, and T. Strömberg, “Inverse Monte Carlo for estimation of scattering and absorption in liquid optical phantoms,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12233–12246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jamrógiewicz, “Application of the near-infrared spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical technology,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 66, 1–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, G. Quarto, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taronia, “Time-domain broadband near infrared spectroscopy of the female breast: a focused review from basic principles to future perspectives,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 20(1), 223–235 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 20(1), 15–27 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for infinite-space fluence,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 015804 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near-infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(6), 063105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10440–10454 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. X. Yu, “Pharmaceutical quality by design: product and process development, understanding, and control,” Pharm. Res. 25(4), 781–791 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, H. Yu, H. Xu, and Y. Ying, “Near infrared spectroscopy for on/in-line monitoring of quality in foods and beverages: A review,” J. Food Eng. 87(3), 303–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tsuchikawa, “A review of recent near infrared research for wood and paper,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(1), 43–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. D. Aydin, C. R. E. De-Oliveira, and A. J. H. Goddard, “A finite element-spherical harmonics radiation transport model for photon migration in turbid media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(3), 247–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. L. Adams and E. W. Larsen, “Fast iterative methods for discrete-ordinates particle transport calculations,” Prog. Nucl. Energy 40(1), 3–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. V. Wang and S. L. Jacques, “Source of error in calculation of optical diffuse reflectance from turbid media using diffusion theory,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 61(3), 163–170 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1992 (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1989 (2)

1979 (1)

Adams, M. L.

M. L. Adams and E. W. Larsen, “Fast iterative methods for discrete-ordinates particle transport calculations,” Prog. Nucl. Energy 40(1), 3–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alerstam, E.

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Single-fiber diffuse optical time-of-flight spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2877–2879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, W. C. Y. Lo, T. D. Han, J. Rose, S. Andersson-Engels, and L. Lilge, “Next-generation acceleration and code optimization for light transport in turbid media using GPUs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 658–675 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near-infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(6), 063105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10440–10454 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. H. A. Nielsen, A. A. Subash, F. D. Nielsen, A. B. Dahl, J. L. Skytte, S. Andersson-Engels, and D. Khoptyar, “Spectral characterizations of dairy products using photon time-of-flight spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 21(5), 375–383 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Johansson, M. Saleem, A. Sparén, J. Johansson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Broadband photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals and highly scattering plastics in the VIS and close NIR spectral ranges,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20941–20953 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Single-fiber diffuse optical time-of-flight spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2877–2879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, W. C. Y. Lo, T. D. Han, J. Rose, S. Andersson-Engels, and L. Lilge, “Next-generation acceleration and code optimization for light transport in turbid media using GPUs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 658–675 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near-infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(6), 063105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10440–10454 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a monte carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 37(13), 2774–2780 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. D. Aydin, C. R. E. De-Oliveira, and A. J. H. Goddard, “A finite element-spherical harmonics radiation transport model for photon migration in turbid media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(3), 247–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
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Bénazech-Lavoué, M.

Bennett, R.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
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Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.

Beullens, K.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
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Bobelyn, E.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
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Bodnar, O.

Born, C.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
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Botwicz, M.

Bouchard, J. P.

Bruckner, A. P.

Caffini, M.

Chalus, P.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
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Chance, B.

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
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Contini, D.

Cubeddu, R.

Dahl, A. B.

Dalla Mora, A.

Day, J. C. C.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
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De-Oliveira, C. R. E.

E. D. Aydin, C. R. E. De-Oliveira, and A. J. H. Goddard, “A finite element-spherical harmonics radiation transport model for photon migration in turbid media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(3), 247–260 (2004).
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Di Sieno, L.

Dinten, J. M.

Durduran, T.

Edmond, A.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elster, C.

Farina, A.

Ferrari, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
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Folestad, S.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near-infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(6), 063105 (2009).
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Foschum, F.

Fredriksson, I.

Gallant, P.

Goddard, A. J. H.

E. D. Aydin, C. R. E. De-Oliveira, and A. J. H. Goddard, “A finite element-spherical harmonics radiation transport model for photon migration in turbid media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(3), 247–260 (2004).
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Gu, Y.

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, T. D.

Hervé, L.

Ho, H. C.

Huang, H.

H. Huang, H. Yu, H. Xu, and Y. Ying, “Near infrared spectroscopy for on/in-line monitoring of quality in foods and beverages: A review,” J. Food Eng. 87(3), 303–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
[Crossref]

Hutchings, J.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
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Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
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L. V. Wang and S. L. Jacques, “Source of error in calculation of optical diffuse reflectance from turbid media using diffusion theory,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 61(3), 163–170 (2000).
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S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
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Jamrógiewicz, M.

M. Jamrógiewicz, “Application of the near-infrared spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical technology,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 66, 1–10 (2012).
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Jent, N.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
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Johansson, J.

D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Johansson, M. Saleem, A. Sparén, J. Johansson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Broadband photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals and highly scattering plastics in the VIS and close NIR spectral ranges,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20941–20953 (2013).
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T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near-infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(6), 063105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johansson, S.

Kacprzak, M.

Karlsson, H.

Kendall, C.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
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Khoptyar, D.

Kienle, A.

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Explicit solutions of the radiative transport equation in the P3 approximation,” Med. Phys. 41(11), 111916 (2014).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
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E. Simon, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Hybrid Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for anisotropically scattering semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Simon, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Time-resolved diffuse spectroscopy measurements using a hybrid Green's function for the radiative transfer equation,” Proc. SPIE 8799, 879906 (2013).
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A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3), 543–551 (2012).
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A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for infinite-space fluence,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 015804 (2011).
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A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
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Lammertyn, J.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
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Larsen, E. W.

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, “Light transport in biological tissue based on the simplified spherical harmonics equations,” J. Comput. Phys. 220(1), 441–470 (2006).
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M. L. Adams and E. W. Larsen, “Fast iterative methods for discrete-ordinates particle transport calculations,” Prog. Nucl. Energy 40(1), 3–159 (2002).
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Leclair, S.

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Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lesage, F.

Li, B.

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, X. D.

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
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Liebert, A.

Liemert, A.

A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Explicit solutions of the radiative transport equation in the P3 approximation,” Med. Phys. 41(11), 111916 (2014).
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A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3), 543–551 (2012).
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A. Liemert and A. Kienle, “Analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for infinite-space fluence,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 015804 (2011).
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Lilge, L.

Lo, W. C. Y.

Luo, Q.

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
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Martelli, F.

Maurer, L.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
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Mazurenka, M.

Meaden, G. M.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
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Mermut, O.

Milej, D.

Moes, C. J. M.

Mora, A. D.

Nicolaï, B. M.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
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Nielsen, O. H. A.

Noiseux, I.

Patterson, M. S.

Peirs, A.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
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Pifferi, A.

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
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A. Puszka, L. Di Sieno, A. D. Mora, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, G. Boso, A. Tosi, L. Hervé, A. Planat-Chrétien, A. Koenig, and J. M. Dinten, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1351–1365 (2013).
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A. Pifferi, A. Farina, A. Torricelli, G. Quarto, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taronia, “Time-domain broadband near infrared spectroscopy of the female breast: a focused review from basic principles to future perspectives,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 20(1), 223–235 (2012).
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D. Contini, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, M. Caffini, R. Re, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Brain and muscle near infrared spectroscopy/imaging techniques,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 20(1), 15–27 (2012).
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E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Single-fiber diffuse optical time-of-flight spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2877–2879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a monte carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 37(13), 2774–2780 (1998).
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Planat-Chrétien, A.

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
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Prahl, S. A.

Puszka, A.

Qiu, Z.

Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Gu, and X. D. Li, “Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 8553, 85530F (2012).
[Crossref]

Quaresima, V.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quarto, G.

Re, R.

Reynolds, L.

Roggo, Y.

Y. Roggo, P. Chalus, L. Maurer, C. Lema-Martinez, A. Edmond, and N. Jent, “A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44(3), 683–700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, J.

Saeys, W.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saleem, M.

Sawosz, P.

Schwanninger, M.

S. S. Tsuchikawa and M. Schwanninger, “A review of recent near infrared research for wood and paper (Part 2),” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 560–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K.

Simon, E.

E. Simon, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Hybrid Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for anisotropically scattering semi-infinite media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Simon, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Time-resolved diffuse spectroscopy measurements using a hybrid Green's function for the radiative transfer equation,” Proc. SPIE 8799, 879906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skytte, J. L.

Smith, B.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sparén, A.

Spinelli, L.

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

J. C. C. Day, R. Bennett, B. Smith, C. Kendall, J. Hutchings, G. M. Meaden, C. Born, S. Yu, and N. Stone, “A miniature confocal Raman probe for endoscopic use,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), 7077–7087 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strömberg, T.

Subash, A. A.

Svanberg, K.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and A. Pifferi, “Single-fiber diffuse optical time-of-flight spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2877–2879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, D. Khoptyar, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near-infrared photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of turbid materials up to 1400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(6), 063105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041304 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Parallel computing with graphics processing units for high-speed Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J Biophotonics 1(3), 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, “Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10440–10454 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

Taronia, P.

Theron, K. I.

B. M. Nicolaï, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. I. Theron, and J. Lammertyn, “Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46(2), 99–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Torricelli, A.

Tosi, A.

Tsuchikawa, S.

S. Tsuchikawa, “A review of recent near infrared research for wood and paper,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(1), 43–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsuchikawa, S. S.

S. S. Tsuchikawa and M. Schwanninger, “A review of recent near infrared research for wood and paper (Part 2),” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 560–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

Valentini, G.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
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van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and S. L. Jacques, “Source of error in calculation of optical diffuse reflectance from turbid media using diffusion theory,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 61(3), 163–170 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weigel, U.

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Huang, H. Yu, H. Xu, and Y. Ying, “Near infrared spectroscopy for on/in-line monitoring of quality in foods and beverages: A review,” J. Food Eng. 87(3), 303–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ying, Y.

H. Huang, H. Yu, H. Xu, and Y. Ying, “Near infrared spectroscopy for on/in-line monitoring of quality in foods and beverages: A review,” J. Food Eng. 87(3), 303–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the PTOF spectrometer. SPC - Single photon counting, APD -Avalanche photodiode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An illustration of the time-resolved measurement with the tested LKM using PTOF spectroscopy and fit residuals (inset).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evaluated optical properties, μ a in plot (a) and μ s in plot (b), presented for a ~2.8% (vol) of intralipid phantom with gradually increasing concentration of prediluted ink. Evaluations using WMC and LKM are depicted as black squares and red diamonds, respectively. The DM, with rising edge threshold at 10% of the peak and threshold at 90% of the peak, is presented with blue stars and magenta circles, respectively. The black lines present the linear fit to WMC data serving as reference value. The residual to the fit for (a) is presented in inset figure. The estimated specific absorption value for ink is 24 cm−1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effect of source and detector fibre separation on evaluated optical properties for two different levels of scattering. The evaluated reduced scattering is presented in (a, b) and absorption in (c, d). The evaluated results by WMC, LKM and DM are depicted as black squares, red diamonds and blue stars, respectively. Black lines indicate the mean value of optical property evaluated using WMC, excluding the first 2 measurements in 'a' and 'c' and the first measurement in 'b' and 'd'.

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