Abstract

We present a computational design for an integrated electro-optic modulator based on near-field plasmonic coupling between gold nanodisks and a thin film of vanadium dioxide on a silicon substrate. Active modulation is achieved by applying a time-varying electric field to initiate large changes in the refractive index of vanadium dioxide. Significant decrease in device footprint (200 nm x 560 nm) and increase in extinction ratio per unit length (9 dB/µm) compared to state-of-the-art photonic and plasmonic modulators are predicted.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

J. S. Brockman, L. Gao, B. Hughes, C. T. Rettner, M. G. Samant, K. P. Roche, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Subnanosecond incubation times for electric-field-induced metallization of a correlated electron oxide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 453–458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Appavoo and R. F. Haglund., “Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator,” Sci Rep 4, 6771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO₂ revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Liu, K. J. Russell, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, “Two-dimensional hybrid photonic/plasmonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8219–8225 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

J. D. Ryckman, K. A. Hallman, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic devices reconfigured by an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal transition,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10753–10763 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. You, C. Xiaonan, K. Changhyun, Y. Zheng, C. Mouli, and S. Ramanathan, “Voltage-triggered ultrafast phase transition in vanadium dioxide switches,” Electron Dev. Lett. IEEE. 34(2), 220–222 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, X. Li, and G. Wang, “A hybrid long-range plasmonic waveguide with sub-wavelength confinement,” Opt. Commun. 291, 400–404 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

M. Nakano, K. Shibuya, D. Okuyama, T. Hatano, S. Ono, M. Kawasaki, Y. Iwasa, and Y. Tokura, “Collective bulk carrier delocalization driven by electrostatic surface charge accumulation,” Nature 487(7408), 459–462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laverock, L. F. J. Piper, A. R. H. Preston, B. Chen, J. McNulty, K. E. Smith, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, P. A. Glans, and J. H. Guo, “Strain dependence of bonding and hybridization across the metal-insulator transition of VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Appavoo, D. Y. Lei, Y. Sonnefraud, B. Wang, S. T. Pantelides, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Haglund., “Role of defects in the phase transition of VO2 nanoparticles probed by plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 780–786 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, E. A. Payzant, and K. L. More, “Non-congruence of thermally driven structural and electronic transitions in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. S. Tao, T. R. T. Han, S. D. Mahanti, P. M. Duxbury, F. Yuan, C. Y. Ruan, K. Wang, and J. Q. Wu, “Decoupling of structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ryckman, V. Diez-Blanco, J. Nag, R. E. Marvel, B. K. Choi, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Photothermal optical modulation of ultra-compact hybrid Si-VO₂ ring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13215–13225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22029–22106 (2011).
[PubMed]

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kana Kana, J. M. Ndjaka, G. Vignaud, A. Gibaud, and M. Maaza, “Thermally tunable optical constants of vanadium dioxide thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Commun. 284(3), 807–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Appavoo and R. F. Haglund., “Detecting nanoscale size dependence in VO2 phase transition using a split-ring resonator metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1025–1031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wu, A. Zimmers, H. Aubin, R. Ghosh, Y. Liu, and R. Lopez, “Electric-field-driven phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241410 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Yaghmaie, J. Fleck, A. Gusman, and R. Prohaska, “Improvement of PMMA electron-beam lithography performance in metal liftoff through a poly-imide bi-layer system,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2629–2632 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Crunteanu, J. Givernaud, J. Leroy, D. Mardivirin, C. Champeaux, J.-C. Orlianges, A. Catherinot, and P. Blondy, “Voltage- and current-activated metal-insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11(6), 065002 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11192–11201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. Eyert, “The metal-insulator transitions of VO2: A band theoretical approach,” Annalen der Physik 11(9), 650–704 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. E. Zucker, K. L. Jones, B. I. Miller, and U. Koren, “Miniature Mach-Zehnder InGaAsP quantum well waveguide interferometers for 1.3μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(1), 32–34 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, S.

Alain, D.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Appavoo, K.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic representation of the proposed hybrid plasmonic modulator design based on Au, VO2, and Si. Light is coupled into the modulator from a standard silicon waveguide using a photonic-hybrid plasmonic mode coupler (not shown). Electric field intensity of the hybrid mode for VO2 in the (b) semiconducting state and (c) metallic state.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Single gold nanodisk transmission spectrum (nanodisk diameter fixed at 180nm, Au thickness fixed at 60 nm, and VO2 thickness fixed at 40 nm). Inset shows the schematic: yellow is gold, green is semiconducting VO2, and gray is silicon. The peak position and amplitude of the resonance for varying (b) VO2 thickness (Au thickness fixed at 60 nm), (c) Au thickness (VO2 thickness fixed at 40 nm), and (d) nanodisk diameter (Au thickness fixed at 60 nm and VO2 thickness fixed at 40 nm) are shown.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission spectra of the devices with varying number of nanodisks (160 nm nanodisk size, 40 nm VO2, 60 nm gold). (b) Coupling strength dependence on the gap size between nanodisks (160 nm nanodisk size, 40 nm VO2, 60 nm gold). Electric field distribution at resonant wavelength for three nanodisk chain shown in the (c) top view and (d) side view (160 nm nanodisk size, 40 nm VO2, 60 nm gold, 20 nm gap). The field is strongest in the gaps between nanodisks and extends into the VO2 region below the nanodisks.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic illustrating regions of VO2 metallization when a voltage is applied across the gold nanodisk chain. (b) Extinction ratio of the hybrid Si-VO2-Au optical modulator as a function of the metallic VO2 region width. (c) Joule heating simulation of the hybrid modulator.

Tables (1)

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Table1 Comparison of plasmonic nanodisk chain hybrid Si-Au-VO2 modulator with other plasmonic and photonic electro-optic modulators.

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