Abstract

We report room temperature electroluminescence of tensile-strained germanium microdisks. The strain is transferred into the microdisks using silicon nitride stressors. Carrier injection is achieved with Schottky contacts on n-type doped germanium. We show that a biaxial tensile-strain up to 0.72% can be transferred by optimizing the carrier injection profile. The transferred strain is measured by the electroluminescence spectral red-shift and compared to finite element modeling. We discuss the impact of this strain level to achieve population inversion in germanium.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aniel, F.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baudot, C.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bensahel, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertin, H.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Boeuf, F.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bosseboeuf, A.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boulmer, J.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boztug, C.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cannon, D. D.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S.-L.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chih-Yao Huang, K.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Damlencourt, J. F.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

David, S.

de Kersauson, M.

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Debarre, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dutt, B.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G.

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gollhofer, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Howe, R. T.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hryciw, A.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ikegami, Y.

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, R.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jain, J. R.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jakomin, R.

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, W. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.-H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaschel, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kermarrec, O.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kociniewski, T.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krner, R.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lagally, M. G.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Largeau, L.

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lisker, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
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Luan, H.-C.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
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Martincic, E.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
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Mauguin, O.

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
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Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
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Ndong, G.

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
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R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
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Nemoto, K.

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
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Ngo, T.-P.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
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Nishi, Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
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Oehme, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
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Paskiewicz, D. M.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
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Patel, N.

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prost, M.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

Roy, A.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19, 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schulze, J.

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shambat, G.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiraki, Y.

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Snchez-Prez, J. R.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suess, M. J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Usami, N.

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vulovic, B. M.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Werner, J.

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, J. S.

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.-Y.

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 um electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zerounian, N.

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, G. Shambat, J. Lu, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Cavity-enhanced direct band electroluminescence near 1550 nm from germanium microdisk resonator diode on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211101 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. Chih-Yao Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Jakomin, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, R. Ossikovski, G. Ndong, and M. Chaigneau, “High quality tensile-strained n-doped germanium thin films grown on InGaAs buffer layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 091901 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, and F. Boeuf, “Schottky electroluminescent diodes with n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 241104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vuckovic, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 um coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241102 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: Strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, R. Jakomin, and I. Sagnes, “Effect of increasing thickness on tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 183508 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, and M. de Kersauson, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nano Letters (1)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Letters 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon (2)

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phot. Res. (1)

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, and L. Largeau, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Phot. Res. 1, 102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (1)

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. R. Snchez-Prez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Kaschel, M. Schmid, M. Gollhofer, J. Werner, M. Oehme, and J. Schulze, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from tensile strained double-heterojunction germanium pin LEDs on silicon substrates,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 87–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thin Sol. Films (1)

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, R. Krner, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Effect of heavy doping and strain on the electroluminescence of Ge-on-Si light emitting diodes,” Thin Sol. Films 557, 351–354 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic cross-section of the germanium microdisk diode with (a) disk-shaped and (b) annular contact. (c) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated microdisk with electrical injection for the disk-shaped contact configuration. The microdisk is buried under the SiN layer, a line is drawn to indicate the position of the microdisk edge.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized room temperature electroluminescence spectra of an unstrained germanium device (black curve-bottom), 9 μm diameter microdisk with disk-shaped contact (blue curve-middle) and 9 μm diameter microdisk with annular contact (red curve-top). The spectra are normalized and offset for clarity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Finite element modeling of the strain profile for a 9 μm diameter microdisk device for the configuration with (a) disk-shaped contact and (b) annular contact. The trace of the strain field (εr + εtheta + εz) is represented. Calculated band diagram along the lateral direction of the germanium at the middle-height of the layer for the disk-shaped (c) and for the annular contact configuration (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Room temperature electroluminescence spectra under different injection current for the disk-shaped contact (a) and annular contact (b) configuration for 9 μm diameter microdisk. The metal contact has a 6 μm diameter in (a). The annular contact in (b) is 500 nm thin with an inner diameter of 3 μm. (c) Integrated electroluminescence optical density for 6, 9, and 12 μm diameter microdisks with disk-shaped contact configuration as a function of current density. The dashed lines are linear guides to the eye.

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