Abstract

Motivated by the need for an extremely durable and portable instrument to quantify volcanic CO2 we have produced a corresponding differential absorption lidar (DIAL). It was tested on a volcano (Vulcano, Italy), sensing a non-uniform volcanic CO2 signal under turbulent atmospheric conditions. The measured CO2 mixing ratio trend agrees qualitatively well but quantitatively poorly with a reference CO2 measurement. The disagreement is not in line with the precision of the DIAL determined under conditions that largely exclude atmospheric effects. We show evidence that the disagreement is mainly due to atmospheric turbulence. We conclude that excluding noise associated with atmospheric turbulence, as commonly done in precision analysis of DIAL instruments, may largely underestimate the error of measured CO2 concentrations in turbulent atmospheric conditions. Implications for volcanic CO2 sensing with DIAL are outlined.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous wave 1.57 μm fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(12), 2874–2892 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Johnson, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse differential absorption lidar for identification of carbon sequestration site leakage,” Appl. Opt. 52(13), 2994–3003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riris, M. Rodriguez, G. R. Allan, W. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, M. Stephen, and J. Abshire, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6369–6382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Burton, G. M. Sawyer, and D. Granieri, “Deep carbon emissions from Volcanoes,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75(1), 323–354 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

2012 (2)

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Sun and J. B. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21291–21304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, J. Jacob, L. E. Christensen, M. W. Phillips, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 μm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection,” Appl. Opt. 50(14), 2098–2111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Berman, V. N. Gorshkov, and S. V. Torous, “Scintillation reduction for laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(5), 055402 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Gerlach, “Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide,” Eos Trans. AGU 92(24), 201–202 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

D. Masiyano, J. Hodgkinson, and R. P. Tatam, “Use of diffuse reflections in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy: implications of laser speckle for gas absorption measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 279–288 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko, and Y. J. Kaufman, “What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5295–5305 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Yin and W. Wang, “Effect of atmospheric scintillation on SNR of differential absorption lidar system,” J. Electr. Sci. Technol. China 2, 21–24 (2004).

T. Hamazaki, A. Kuze, and K. Kondo, “Sensor system for greenhouse gas observing satellite (GOSAT),” Proc. SPIE 5543, 275–282 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Chrzanowski, J. Kirkiewicz, and Y. A. Kravtsov, “Influence of enhanced backscattering phenomenon on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere,” Phys. Lett. A 300(2-3), 298–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Fiorani and E. Durieux, “Comparison among error calculations in differential absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 371–377 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. R. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, L. A. Horrocks, and P. W. Francis, “Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua,” Geology 28(10), 915–918 (2000).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

A. S. Gurvich and S. S. Kashkarov, “Problem of enhancement of scattering in a turbulent medium,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 547–549 (1977).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. M. Schottland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13(1), 71–77 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abo, M.

Abshire, J.

H. Riris, M. Rodriguez, G. R. Allan, W. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, M. Stephen, and J. Abshire, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6369–6382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

Aiuppa, A.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Allan, G. R.

H. Riris, M. Rodriguez, G. R. Allan, W. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, M. Stephen, and J. Abshire, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6369–6382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amediek, A.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Auwera, J. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Barry, C.

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Berman, G. P.

G. P. Berman, V. N. Gorshkov, and S. V. Torous, “Scintillation reduction for laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(5), 055402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Biraud, S.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bogan, J. R.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Brothers, A. M.

Browell, E. V.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Burton, M. R.

M. R. Burton, G. M. Sawyer, and D. Granieri, “Deep carbon emissions from Volcanoes,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75(1), 323–354 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, L. A. Horrocks, and P. W. Francis, “Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua,” Geology 28(10), 915–918 (2000).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Carlsten, J. L.

Chanc, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Chen, T.

Choi, Y.

Christensen, L. E.

Chrzanowski, J.

J. Chrzanowski, J. Kirkiewicz, and Y. A. Kravtsov, “Influence of enhanced backscattering phenomenon on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere,” Phys. Lett. A 300(2-3), 298–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Defeo, W. E.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Dobler, J. T.

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Durieux, E.

L. Fiorani and E. Durieux, “Comparison among error calculations in differential absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 371–377 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ehret, G.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Fiorani, L.

L. Fiorani and E. Durieux, “Comparison among error calculations in differential absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 371–377 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fix, A.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Francis, P. W.

M. R. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, L. A. Horrocks, and P. W. Francis, “Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua,” Geology 28(10), 915–918 (2000).
[Crossref]

Froidevaux, M.

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Ge, Y.

Gerlach, T.

T. Gerlach, “Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide,” Eos Trans. AGU 92(24), 201–202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Gorshkov, V. N.

G. P. Berman, V. N. Gorshkov, and S. V. Torous, “Scintillation reduction for laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(5), 055402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Granieri, D.

M. R. Burton, G. M. Sawyer, and D. Granieri, “Deep carbon emissions from Volcanoes,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75(1), 323–354 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grant, W. B.

Gurvich, A. S.

A. S. Gurvich and S. S. Kashkarov, “Problem of enhancement of scattering in a turbulent medium,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 547–549 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hamazaki, T.

T. Hamazaki, A. Kuze, and K. Kondo, “Sensor system for greenhouse gas observing satellite (GOSAT),” Proc. SPIE 5543, 275–282 (2004).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F. W.

Harrison, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hasselbrack, W.

Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Higgins, C. W.

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hirano, Y.

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hodgkinson, J.

D. Masiyano, J. Hodgkinson, and R. P. Tatam, “Use of diffuse reflections in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy: implications of laser speckle for gas absorption measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 279–288 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hong, G.

Horrocks, L. A.

M. R. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, L. A. Horrocks, and P. W. Francis, “Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua,” Geology 28(10), 915–918 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Imaki, M.

Inguaggiato, S.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ismail, S.

Jacob, J.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Johnson, W.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Kameyama, S.

Kashkarov, S. S.

A. S. Gurvich and S. S. Kashkarov, “Problem of enhancement of scattering in a turbulent medium,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 547–549 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, Y. J.

A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko, and Y. J. Kaufman, “What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5295–5305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kawa, S. R.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, S.

Killinger, D. K.

Kirkiewicz, J.

J. Chrzanowski, J. Kirkiewicz, and Y. A. Kravtsov, “Influence of enhanced backscattering phenomenon on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere,” Phys. Lett. A 300(2-3), 298–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

T. Hamazaki, A. Kuze, and K. Kondo, “Sensor system for greenhouse gas observing satellite (GOSAT),” Proc. SPIE 5543, 275–282 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kooi, S.

Kravtsov, Y. A.

J. Chrzanowski, J. Kirkiewicz, and Y. A. Kravtsov, “Influence of enhanced backscattering phenomenon on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere,” Phys. Lett. A 300(2-3), 298–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuze, A.

T. Hamazaki, A. Kuze, and K. Kondo, “Sensor system for greenhouse gas observing satellite (GOSAT),” Proc. SPIE 5543, 275–282 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

LeRoy, R. L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Lin, B.

Liu, H.

Long, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Mao, J.

H. Riris, M. Rodriguez, G. R. Allan, W. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, M. Stephen, and J. Abshire, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6369–6382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marshak, A.

A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko, and Y. J. Kaufman, “What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5295–5305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martins, J. V.

A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko, and Y. J. Kaufman, “What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5295–5305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Masiyano, D.

D. Masiyano, J. Hodgkinson, and R. P. Tatam, “Use of diffuse reflections in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy: implications of laser speckle for gas absorption measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 279–288 (2008).
[Crossref]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

McGonigle, A. J. S.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

McGregor, D.

Menyuk, N.

Menzies, R. T.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Nagai, T.

Nagasawa, C.

Nakajima, M.

Nakazato, M.

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

O’Dwyer, M.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oppenheimer, C.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. R. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, L. A. Horrocks, and P. W. Francis, “Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua,” Geology 28(10), 915–918 (2000).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Padgett, M. J.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Parlange, M. B.

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Phillips, M. W.

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Repasky, K. S.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Riris, H.

H. Riris, M. Rodriguez, G. R. Allan, W. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, M. Stephen, and J. Abshire, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6369–6382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Rouwet, D.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sakai, T.

Sakaizawa, D.

Sawyer, G. M.

M. R. Burton, G. M. Sawyer, and D. Granieri, “Deep carbon emissions from Volcanoes,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75(1), 323–354 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schottland, R. M.

R. M. Schottland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13(1), 71–77 (1974).
[Crossref]

Shibata, Y.

Shu, R.

Simeonov, V.

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Spiers, G. D.

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Stephen, M.

Sun, X.

X. Sun and J. B. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21291–21304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tatam, R. P.

D. Masiyano, J. Hodgkinson, and R. P. Tatam, “Use of diffuse reflections in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy: implications of laser speckle for gas absorption measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 279–288 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Torous, S. V.

G. P. Berman, V. N. Gorshkov, and S. V. Torous, “Scintillation reduction for laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(5), 055402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Ueno, S.

Valenza, M.

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vercauteren, N.

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Wang, W.

S. Yin and W. Wang, “Effect of atmospheric scintillation on SNR of differential absorption lidar system,” J. Electr. Sci. Technol. China 2, 21–24 (2004).

Weaver, C. J.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

S. Yin and W. Wang, “Effect of atmospheric scintillation on SNR of differential absorption lidar system,” J. Electr. Sci. Technol. China 2, 21–24 (2004).

Zheng, L.

Zubko, V.

A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko, and Y. J. Kaufman, “What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5295–5305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (8)

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, and W. E. Defeo, “Remote sensing of NO using a differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 19(19), 3282–3286 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, J. Jacob, L. E. Christensen, M. W. Phillips, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 μm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection,” Appl. Opt. 50(14), 2098–2111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous wave 1.57 μm fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(12), 2874–2892 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), 748–757 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Johnson, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse differential absorption lidar for identification of carbon sequestration site leakage,” Appl. Opt. 52(13), 2994–3003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riris, M. Rodriguez, G. R. Allan, W. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, M. Stephen, and J. Abshire, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6369–6382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Grant, A. M. Brothers, and J. R. Bogan, “Differential absorption lidar signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 27(10), 1934–1938 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Grant, “He-Ne and cw CO2 laser long-path systems for gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 25(5), 709–719 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Masiyano, J. Hodgkinson, and R. P. Tatam, “Use of diffuse reflections in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy: implications of laser speckle for gas absorption measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 279–288 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko, and Y. J. Kaufman, “What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5295–5305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bound.-Layer Meteor. (1)

C. W. Higgins, M. Froidevaux, V. Simeonov, N. Vercauteren, C. Barry, and M. B. Parlange, “The effect of scale on the applicability of taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Bound.-Layer Meteor. 143(2), 379–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eos Trans. AGU (1)

T. Gerlach, “Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide,” Eos Trans. AGU 92(24), 201–202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1)

A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle, M. O’Dwyer, C. Oppenheimer, M. J. Padgett, D. Rouwet, and M. Valenza, “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(7), 1861–1871 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geology (1)

M. R. Burton, C. Oppenheimer, L. A. Horrocks, and P. W. Francis, “Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua,” Geology 28(10), 915–918 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

R. M. Schottland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13(1), 71–77 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Electr. Sci. Technol. China (1)

S. Yin and W. Wang, “Effect of atmospheric scintillation on SNR of differential absorption lidar system,” J. Electr. Sci. Technol. China 2, 21–24 (2004).

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

G. P. Berman, V. N. Gorshkov, and S. V. Torous, “Scintillation reduction for laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(5), 055402 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chanc, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, J. V. Auwera, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

L. Fiorani and E. Durieux, “Comparison among error calculations in differential absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 371–377 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. Chrzanowski, J. Kirkiewicz, and Y. A. Kravtsov, “Influence of enhanced backscattering phenomenon on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere,” Phys. Lett. A 300(2-3), 298–302 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Hamazaki, A. Kuze, and K. Kondo, “Sensor system for greenhouse gas observing satellite (GOSAT),” Proc. SPIE 5543, 275–282 (2004).
[Crossref]

Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[Crossref]

Rev. Mineral. Geochem. (1)

M. R. Burton, G. M. Sawyer, and D. Granieri, “Deep carbon emissions from Volcanoes,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75(1), 323–354 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tellus (1)

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

D. H. Tofsted, S. G. O’Brien, and G. T. Vaucher, “An atmospheric profile model for use in army wargaming applications 1,” U.S. Army Research Laboratory, report ARL-TR-3748, 2006.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) System configuration of the compact DIAL. (b) Absorption spectrum from the reference CO2 cell made with the ON seed laser. The grey curve depicts the transmission computed assuming a Lorentzian absorption line shape.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Laboratory calibration test at 22 m target distance with a wavelength switching rate of 2 kHz. SRON and SROFF depict the normalized ON and OFF science signal, respectively. The standard deviation of the GR is 0.00176 or 0.015 dB. The offset of the GR is 0.03.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Indoor sensitivity test. The wavelength switching rate was 1 kHz. W depicts weak flush (CO2 volume ~2/3 l), M depicts moderate flush (CO2 volume ~2 l). The arrows mark the start of the flushes. Each flush took ca. 2 seconds. Wavelengths at default. (b) Repeated test with both wavelengths set to OFF. (c) Normalized science signals during an outdoor sensitivity test. The wavelength switching rate was 500 Hz. (d) GR (Ratio between SRON and SROFF in Fig. 3(c)).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Outdoor calibration tests. The wavelength switching rate was 2 kHz for all. (a) All GR values. The target was barren ground at 22 m distance. (b) Effect of averaging of (a). Standard error is 0.024 for an integration time of 1 ms (1 pair) and 0.014 for 100 ms (all 100 pairs) per point. (c) Weathered concrete hard target at 95 m distance. Standard error is 0.0126 for 1 ms and 0.0057 for 1 s integration time per point. (d) The target was a hill covered with bushes at 827 m distance. Standard error is 0.0136 for 1 ms and 0.0066 for 2 s integration time per point. GR values before averaging are displayed in grey.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Location of Vulcano (red square). (b) Blowup of the island with the volcano in the northern part. The red arrow marks the measurement path, pointing towards east-northeast. (c) OP-FTIR (1), infrared source (2), compact DIAL (3) and hard target at 158 m distance (4). Condensed gas is visible.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Time series data from Vulcano. (a) Complete ensemble of inverse GR from the compact DIAL (inverse for enhanced comparability with Fig. 6(b)). (b) Path averaged CO2 mixing ratios from compact DIAL. Grey envelope corresponds to ± STD of data in Fig. 6(a). (c) Path averaged CO2 mixing ratios from OP-FTIR. Shaded grey depicts statistical error. To make them comparable in time, series in Figs. 6(b) and 6(c) have been gridded to a 4 s time interval.

Equations (2)

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N= DOD ΔσR ,
DOD= 1 2 ln( P ON P OFF,ref P OFF P ON,ref )

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