Abstract

A design and results for an instrument with a quantum cascade laser and an antimonide diode laser to measure simultaneously and with high precision seven isotopologues of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Methods and results for determining the effects that limit absorption noise at the level of 5x10−6 are presented and discussed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  17. S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  21. Aerodyne Research, Inc., www.aerodyne.com
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  27. J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
  28. D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54(2), 197–236 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  37. R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. Sturm, W. Eugster, and A. Knohl, “Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 isotopologues with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 152, 73–82 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
    [Crossref]

2013 (4)

J. Jágerská, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, A. Bismuto, J. Faist, H. Prinz, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly sensitive and fast detection of propane-butane using a 3 μm quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4613–4619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Sturm, W. Eugster, and A. Knohl, “Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 isotopologues with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 152, 73–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, “Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO₂, ¹³CO₂ and ¹²C¹⁸O¹⁶O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 46(1), 49–63 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, “Compact diode-laser spectrometer ISOWAT for highly sensitive airborne measurements of water-isotope ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 537–548 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfriani, “Advances in laser-based isotope ratio measurements: selected applications,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 439–449 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54(2), 197–236 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agnese, M.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Baillargeon, J. N.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 321–326 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baranov, A. N.

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bewley, W. W.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bismuto, A.

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Blaser, S.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Camparguej, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Canedy, C. L.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 321–326 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Chenevier, M.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 321–326 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

D’Amato, F.

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Dhaniyala, S.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Dyroff, C.

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, “Compact diode-laser spectrometer ISOWAT for highly sensitive airborne measurements of water-isotope ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 537–548 (2010).
[Crossref]

Emmenegger, L.

J. Jágerská, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, A. Bismuto, J. Faist, H. Prinz, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly sensitive and fast detection of propane-butane using a 3 μm quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4613–4619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eugster, W.

P. Sturm, W. Eugster, and A. Knohl, “Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 isotopologues with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 152, 73–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

J. Jágerská, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, A. Bismuto, J. Faist, H. Prinz, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly sensitive and fast detection of propane-butane using a 3 μm quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4613–4619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Flesch, G. J.

Fütterer, D.

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, “Compact diode-laser spectrometer ISOWAT for highly sensitive airborne measurements of water-isotope ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 537–548 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaillard, S.

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Gianfriani, L.

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfriani, “Advances in laser-based isotope ratio measurements: selected applications,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 439–449 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gini, E.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 321–326 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gmacle, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hancock, G.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Herndon, S. C.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hofstetter, D.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 321–326 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hvozdara, L.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iannone, R. Q.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilegems, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Jágerská, J.

Jervis, D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Jost, H.-J.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kassi, S.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kebabian, P. L.

Kerstel, E.

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfriani, “Advances in laser-based isotope ratio measurements: selected applications,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 439–449 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kerstel, E. R. T.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Knohl, A.

P. Sturm, W. Eugster, and A. Knohl, “Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 isotopologues with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 152, 73–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kosterev, A. A.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Larrabee, D. C.

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Lewicki, R.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Lindle, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Looser, H.

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

May, R. D.

Mazzinghi, P.

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

McGovern, R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

McManus, J. B.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, “Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO₂, ¹³CO₂ and ¹²C¹⁸O¹⁶O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 46(1), 49–63 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, “Paraxial matrix description of astigmatic and cylindrical mirror resonators with twisted axes for laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(4), 472–482 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3336–3348 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Meijer, H. A. J.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merritt, C. D.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Mohn, J.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Muller, A.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Munger, J. W.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Nelson, D. D.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, “Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO₂, ¹³CO₂ and ¹²C¹⁸O¹⁶O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 46(1), 49–63 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Nolde, J. A.

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oesterle, U.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Pérona, A.

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Prinz, H.

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Ritchie, G.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

Romanini, D.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roscioli, J. R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Rouillard, Y.

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saleska, S. R.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scott, D. C.

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 321–326 (2001).
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C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
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F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Snels, M.

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spagnolo, V.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Sturm, P.

P. Sturm, W. Eugster, and A. Knohl, “Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 isotopologues with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 152, 73–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Swanson, J. E.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tittel, F. K.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toci, G.

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tredicucci, A.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tuzson, B.

J. Jágerská, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, A. Bismuto, J. Faist, H. Prinz, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly sensitive and fast detection of propane-butane using a 3 μm quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4613–4619 (2013).
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B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Vicet, A.

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viciani, S.

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

von Helden, J.-P.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
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C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Walker, R.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

Webster, C. R.

Wehr, R.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weidmann, D.

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

Werle, P.

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54(2), 197–236 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Werner, R. A.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wofsy, S. C.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wood, E.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Woodward, W. S.

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yacovitch, T. I.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Yarekha, D. A.

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahn, A.

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, “Compact diode-laser spectrometer ISOWAT for highly sensitive airborne measurements of water-isotope ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 537–548 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zahniser, M. S.

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A74–A85 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, “Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO₂, ¹³CO₂ and ¹²C¹⁸O¹⁶O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 46(1), 49–63 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Characterization of a near-room-temperature, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser for long-term, unattended monitoring of nitric oxide in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2012–2014 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3336–3348 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeeman, M. J.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agric. For. Meteorol. (3)

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Measuring forest-atmosphere exchange of 13C16O2, 18O12C16O, and 12C16O2 by eddy covariance,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Sturm, W. Eugster, and A. Knohl, “Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 isotopologues with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 152, 73–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Wehr, J. W. Munger, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, and S. R. Saleska, “Long-term eddy covariance measurements of the isotopic composition of the ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate forest,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 181, 69–84 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (10)

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Dyroff, D. Fütterer, and A. Zahn, “Compact diode-laser spectrometer ISOWAT for highly sensitive airborne measurements of water-isotope ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 537–548 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfriani, “Advances in laser-based isotope ratio measurements: selected applications,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 439–449 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Viciani, F. D’Amato, P. Mazzinghi, G. Toci, and P. Werle, “A cryogenically operated laser diode spectrometer for airborne measurement of stratospheric trace gases,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 581–592 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of CW and Pulsed Operation with a TE-Cooled Quantum Cascade Infrared Laser for Detection of Nitric Oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmacle, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 931–947 (2000).
[Crossref]

Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. (2)

R. Q. Iannone, S. Kassi, H.-J. Jost, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, H. A. J. Meijer, S. Dhaniyala, M. Snels, and E. R. T. Kerstel, “Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 45(4), 303–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, and M. S. Zahniser, “Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO₂, ¹³CO₂ and ¹²C¹⁸O¹⁶O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 46(1), 49–63 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[Crossref]

JQSRT (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Camparguej, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” JQSRT 130, 4–50 (2013).

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Hancock, G. Ritchie, J.-P. von Helden, R. Walker, and D. Weidmann, “Applications of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers to spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111121 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34(4), 275–282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295(5553), 301–305 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

A. Vicet, D. A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, and A. N. Baranov, “Trace gas detection with antimonide-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 58(11), 2405–2412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochimica Acta Part A (1)

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54(2), 197–236 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers, (Oxford University, 2013).

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B (2015).
[Crossref]

Alpes Laser [Neuchatel, Switzerland, www.alpeslasers.ch ]

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Topics in Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516, I. T. Sorokina, and K. L. Vodopyanov, Eds., (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Nanoplus, www.nanoplus.com

Aerodyne Research, Inc., www.aerodyne.com

Los Gatos Research, www.lgrinc.com

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagram of the optical layout for the dual laser instrument. The main sample measurement path is colored red, while the reference paths are shown in blue. The sample path includes a 36 m absorption cell. The two reference paths are derived by the reflections from both sides of a wedged BaF2 plate. One reference path contains a short reference gas cell and the other has an etalon that may be flipped into the beam for measurement of laser tuning rates. Both reference beams are focused on the same detector, with the choice of which is active made by flipping an opaque flag into one reference beam or the other.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectrum for H2O and CO2 obtained with the dual isotope instrument with water vapor and carbon dioxide at ambient levels and a 36 m absorption path in a pressure of ~30 Torr. The measured spectrum is the green trace, and the fit is the black trace. The fit background is the black dotted line.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diagram of the water-CO2 calibration system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Allan-Werle plot, variance vs. integration time, for isotopologue ratio [12C18O16O]/[12C16O2], ambient air sample.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Allan-Werle plot, variance vs. integration time, for isotopologue ratio [13C16O2]/[12C16O2], ambient air sample.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Allan-Werle plot, variance vs. integration time, for isotopologue ratio [HDO]/[H2O], ambient air sample.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Allan-Werle plot, variance vs. integration time, for isotopologue ratio [H2 18O]/[H2O], ambient air sample.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Examples of the application of the interpolated polynomial fit method for the isotopic ratio for deuterated water, HDO/H2O, for rooftop ambient sampling data. The Hitran [32] isotopic designation is used in the axis labels, so that “162” refers to 1H16O2H. “Delta H2O 162” = ({ [1H16O2H]/[1H2 16O] }sample/ { [1H16O2H]/[1H2 16O] }ref. mtl −1) x 1000, and [*] indicates concentration. The calibration periods are the sets of points that span a wide concentration range. The upper panel shows concentration dependence in the measurement of a given standard material, but the calibration algorithm compensates for that dependence. The resulting atmospheric deltas then should be more accurate.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Examples of the application of the interpolated polynomial fit method for isotopic ratio 13CO2/12CO2 for rooftop ambient sampling data. The Hitran [32] isotopic designation is used in the axis labels, so that “636” refers to 16O13C16O. “Delta CO2 626” = ({ [16O13C16O]/[ 2C16O2] }sample/ { [16O13C16O]/[12C16O2] }ref. mtl −1) x 1000, and [*] indicates concentration. The calibration periods are the sets of points that span a wide concentration range. The upper panel shows concentration dependence in the measurement of a given standard material, but the calibration algorithm compensates for that dependence. The resulting atmospheric deltas then should be more accurate.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Average normalized spectra for both lasers (red trace), and noise in each channel (standard deviation) (blue trace). The higher channel noise at the sides of the absorption lines indicates laser frequency modulation.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The plot above shows channel variance plotted against the square of the derivative of the average spectrum versus frequency. The plot quantifies the frequency modulation for both lasers, as the slope is expected to be the variance in the frequency. This gives the standard deviations of the frequency modulation (square roots of the slopes) as 1.3x10−4 cm−1 for laser 1, and 0.9x10−4 cm−1 for laser 2. That amount of frequency modulation corresponds to ~1/10 of a measurement channel.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 FFT (power spectra) of columns in the spectral array recorded without averaging. The false color represents the log of the power density. There is diffuse noise distributed across the spectra, as well as vertical stripes of increased noise power at the (channel) locations of the deep absorption lines (appearing yellow to red). Further enhanced noise power is seen at per-sweep frequency. For laser 2 the Y-frequency is clearly ~0.3, which matches the Y-frequency seen in the zero-air burst. The matching X-frequency then was 0.251 per channel, the 380 kHz switching frequency. The Y-frequency for laser 1 is less clear.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 2D-FFT of the laser 2 signal recorded without averaging, at 2 kHz. The false color represents the log of the power density. Here the normalized average-subtracted array has been filtered to remove low frequency fluctuations. There is a power spike at (fx, fy) = [0.25, 0.30] due to frequency modulation. The x-frequency (0.25 per channel) corresponds to an electrical frequency of ~380 kHz, which is the power supply switching frequency. The power spikes at [<0.05, ± 0.30] are due to the same FM acting on the absorption line-shapes.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Ambient air absorption line characteristics, 30 Torr, 36 m

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Table 2 Dual Isotope Instrument Noise Performance, Ambient Air

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Table 3 Noise partition results for H2O-CO2 isotope instrument, 1s averages

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = ( [ m i n o r i s o t o p e ] / [ m a j o r i s o t o p e ] ) s a m p l e / ( [ m i n o r i s o t o p e ] / [ m a j o r i s o t o p e ] ) s t a n d a r d .
t ( c , r ) = c / F s + r N s / F A D
S ( c , r ) = E o sin [ 2 π c f e / F s + 2 π r f e N s / F A D ) ] = E o sin [ 2 π c f e / F s + 2 π r f e / F s ) ]

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