Abstract

Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns. The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

B. Johansson, F. Höök, D. Klenerman, and P. Jönsson, “Label-free measurements of the diffusivity of molecules in lipid membranes,” ChemPhysChem 15(3), 486–491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grivas and M. Pollnau, “Organic solid-state integrated amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(4), 419–462 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. B. Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Min, “Label-free optical imaging of nonfluorescent molecules by stimulated radiation,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 15(6), 831–837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optimizing the spatial resolution of photonic crystal label-free imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), 6567–6574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Peterson, M. Halter, A. Tona, K. Bhadriraju, and A. L. Plant, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin,” BMC Cell Biol. 10(1), 16 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andrecka, J.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bartoli, F. J.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellon, S.

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bergstein, D. A.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhadriraju, K.

A. W. Peterson, M. Halter, A. Tona, K. Bhadriraju, and A. L. Plant, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin,” BMC Cell Biol. 10(1), 16 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billington, N.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Block, I. D.

Britland, S. T.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buller, J.

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buß, T.

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Campanella, C. E.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campanella, C. M.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, V.

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhery, V.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. S.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chow, E.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christiansen, M. B.

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. B. Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Connor, J. H.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuiffi, J.

J. Cuiffi, R. Soong, S. Manolakos, S. Mohapatra, and D. Larson, “Nanohole array sensor technology : multiplexed label-free protein binding assays,” Proc. IFMBE32, 572–575 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B. T.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optimizing the spatial resolution of photonic crystal label-free imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), 6567–6574 (2009).
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M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

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C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danz, N.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
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C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).
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M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Döring, S.

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
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X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
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X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
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F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Galbrecht, F.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
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Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
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Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
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C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerlach, K.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, B. B.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gries, W.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
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C. Grivas and M. Pollnau, “Organic solid-state integrated amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(4), 419–462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Halter, M.

A. W. Peterson, M. Halter, A. Tona, K. Bhadriraju, and A. L. Plant, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin,” BMC Cell Biol. 10(1), 16 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harley, B. A. C.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermannsson, P. G.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heydari, E.

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hinze, P.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Höfer, B.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hogle, J. M.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höök, F.

B. Johansson, F. Höök, D. Klenerman, and P. Jönsson, “Label-free measurements of the diffusivity of molecules in lipid membranes,” ChemPhysChem 15(3), 486–491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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Huang, B.

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, G. M.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irfan, U.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jamil, M. M. A.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, J.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johannes, H.-H.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johansson, B.

B. Johansson, F. Höök, D. Klenerman, and P. Jönsson, “Label-free measurements of the diffusivity of molecules in lipid membranes,” ChemPhysChem 15(3), 486–491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, S. I.

Jönsson, P.

B. Johansson, F. Höök, D. Klenerman, and P. Jönsson, “Label-free measurements of the diffusivity of molecules in lipid membranes,” ChemPhysChem 15(3), 486–491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, M. M.

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kick, A.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, W. P.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klenerman, D.

B. Johansson, F. Höök, D. Klenerman, and P. Jönsson, “Label-free measurements of the diffusivity of molecules in lipid membranes,” ChemPhysChem 15(3), 486–491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klotzbach, U.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kohl, A.

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, A.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. B. Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kukura, P.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
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Larson, D.

J. Cuiffi, R. Soong, S. Manolakos, S. Mohapatra, and D. Larson, “Nanohole array sensor technology : multiplexed label-free protein binding assays,” Proc. IFMBE32, 572–575 (2010).
[Crossref]

Larson, D. N.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laschewsky, A.

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leberre, V. A.

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-W.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, M. C.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lidstone, E. A.

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, K. D.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, C. A.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Manolakos, S.

J. Cuiffi, R. Soong, S. Manolakos, S. Mohapatra, and D. Larson, “Nanohole array sensor technology : multiplexed label-free protein binding assays,” Proc. IFMBE32, 572–575 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maria, J.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathias, P. C.

Mertig, M.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Min, W.

W. Min, “Label-free optical imaging of nonfluorescent molecules by stimulated radiation,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 15(6), 831–837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohapatra, S.

J. Cuiffi, R. Soong, S. Manolakos, S. Mohapatra, and D. Larson, “Nanohole array sensor technology : multiplexed label-free protein binding assays,” Proc. IFMBE32, 572–575 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nagaraj, V. J.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niederhofer, J.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishizaka, T.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, Y.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oowada, S.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortega Arroyo, J.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Özkumur, E.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, U.

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, S. R.

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peterson, A. W.

A. W. Peterson, M. Halter, A. Tona, K. Bhadriraju, and A. L. Plant, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin,” BMC Cell Biol. 10(1), 16 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pillet, F.

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plant, A. L.

A. W. Peterson, M. Halter, A. Tona, K. Bhadriraju, and A. L. Plant, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin,” BMC Cell Biol. 10(1), 16 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polans, J.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Grivas and M. Pollnau, “Organic solid-state integrated amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(4), 419–462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pratviel, G.

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rabe, T.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Richter, F.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riedl, T.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scherf, U.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

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N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schook, L. B.

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sellers, J. R.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, X.

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singamaneni, S.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. B. Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jørgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Somekh, M. G.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonntag, F.

N. Danz, A. Kick, F. Sonntag, S. Schmieder, B. Höfer, U. Klotzbach, and M. Mertig, “Surface plasmon resonance platform technology for multi-parameter analyses on polymer chips,” Eng. Life Sci. 11(6), 566–572 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. Cuiffi, R. Soong, S. Manolakos, S. Mohapatra, and D. Larson, “Nanohole array sensor technology : multiplexed label-free protein binding assays,” Proc. IFMBE32, 572–575 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spillane, K. M.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, M. E.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stumpe, J.

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takagi, Y.

J. Ortega Arroyo, J. Andrecka, K. M. Spillane, N. Billington, Y. Takagi, J. R. Sellers, and P. Kukura, “Label-free, all-optical detection, imaging, and tracking of a single protein,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2065–2070 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, N.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teulade-Fichou, M.-P.

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, L.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tona, A.

A. W. Peterson, M. Halter, A. Tona, K. Bhadriraju, and A. L. Plant, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin,” BMC Cell Biol. 10(1), 16 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trévisiol, E.

F. Pillet, C. Romera, E. Trévisiol, S. Bellon, M.-P. Teulade-Fichou, J.-M. François, G. Pratviel, and V. A. Leberre, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) as an alternative technique for rapid and quantitative screening of small molecules, useful in drug discovery,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(1), 304–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Unlü, M. S.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ünlü, M. S.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vannahme, C.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films: Design guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1036–1042 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. B. Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vedula, R. S.

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vodkin, L. O.

Wang, J.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, X. Shan, U. Patel, X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Li, and N. Tao, “Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(37), 16028–16032 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weimann, T.

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
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White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wischerhoff, E.

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolf-Jensen, T.

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xin, Z.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
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Yajima, J.

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
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J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
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Yang, Y.

W. Wang, Y. Yang, S. Wang, V. J. Nagaraj, Q. Liu, J. Wu, and N. Tao, “Label-free measuring and mapping of binding kinetics of membrane proteins in single living cells,” Nat. Chem. 4(10), 846–853 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youseffi, M.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yurt, A.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zare, R. N.

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

Y. Gao, Z. Xin, B. Zeng, Q. Gan, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic interferometric sensor arrays for high-performance label-free biomolecular detection,” Lab Chip 13(24), 4755–4764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, “Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy,” J. Struct. Biol. 164(1), 75–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuo, Y.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

E. Heydari, J. Buller, E. Wischerhoff, A. Laschewsky, S. Döring, and J. Stumpe, “Label-free biosensor based on an all-polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 137–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (3)

E. A. Lidstone, V. Chaudhery, A. Kohl, V. Chan, T. Wolf-Jensen, L. B. Schook, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cell attachment with photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(18), 3608–3615 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(20), 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. Yao, M. E. Stewart, J. Maria, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Seeing molecules by eye: surface plasmon resonance imaging at visible wavelengths with high spatial resolution and submonolayer sensitivity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(27), 5013–5017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Rabe, K. Gerlach, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Niederhofer, W. Gries, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, F. Galbrecht, and U. Scherf, “Quasi-continuous-wave operation of an organic thin-film distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081115 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. B. Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

C. A. Lopez, G. G. Daaboul, R. S. Vedula, E. Özkumur, D. A. Bergstein, T. W. Geisbert, H. E. Fawcett, B. B. Goldberg, J. H. Connor, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free multiplexed virus detection using spectral reflectance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3432–3437 (2011).
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BMC Cell Biol. (1)

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MP4 (454 KB)     
» Media 2: MP4 (102 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device and optical setup. (a) Schematic of DFB dye laser sensor with grating period Λ = 368 nm. (b) Schematic illustration of the optical setup. (c) Image of laser emission on the device surface. The black line indicates the position of the spectrometer entrance slit in the optical setup. (d) Typical image from CCD2 with narrow laser line in the center. Only a part of the image in wavelength direction is shown. (e) Spectra for five selected x-positions in (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Monitoring the dissolution of small pieces of solid materials in water with DFB dye laser sensors. (a) Schematic of fluidic well structure with laser area in the center and photograph of 4 of such well structures on the device. (b) Wavelength shift as function of time and position for adding a piece of NaCl to the small well. The white symbols indicate the onset of the wavelength shift and the green line is a fit to these data. Media 1 shows how the laser line shifts upon the presence of NaCl in the water, recorded with CCD2. (c) Comparison of onset lines for NaCl, sucrose, and BSA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Monitoring fast flow with DFB dye laser sensor. (a) A drop of water containing rhodamine 6G dye added to the empty smaller well (compare Fig. 2(a)) causing a jet stream into the larger well (dotted white line) filled with water. Media 2 shows this as a video. (b) Wavelength shift upon adding of sucrose water to the small well monitored with a frame rate of 12 Hz. (c) Wavelength shift upon addition of sucrose water to the small well monitored with a frame rate of 20 Hz.

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