Abstract

Monolithic microwave phased arrays are turning mainstream in automotive radars and high-speed wireless communications fulfilling Gordon Moores 1965 prophecy to this effect. Optical phased arrays enable imaging, lidar, display, sensing, and holography. Advancements in fabrication technology has led to monolithic nanophotonic phased arrays, albeit without independent phase and amplitude control ability, integration with electronic circuitry, or including receive and transmit functions. We report the first monolithic optical phased array transceiver with independent control of amplitude and phase for each element using electronic circuitry that is tightly integrated with the nanophotonic components on one substrate using a commercial foundry CMOS SOI process. The 8 × 8 phased array chip includes thermo-optical tunable phase shifters and attenuators, nano-photonic antennas, and dedicated control electronics realized using CMOS transistors. The complex chip includes over 300 distinct optical components and over 74,000 distinct electrical components achieving the highest level of integration for any electronic-photonic system.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  19. B. G. Lee, J. O. Plouchart, A. V. Rylyakov, J. H. Song, F. E. Doany, and C. L. Schow, “Passive photonics in an unmodified CMOS technology with no post-processing required,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 393–396 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Song, R. Budd, B. Lee, C. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Focusing grating couplers in unmodified 180-nm Silicon-on-Insulator CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 825–828 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with 50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 62, 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “A 32 × 32 optical phased array using polysilicon sub-wavelength high-contrast-grating mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 19029–19039 (2014).

J. Song, R. Budd, B. Lee, C. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Focusing grating couplers in unmodified 180-nm Silicon-on-Insulator CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 825–828 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, J. Covey, Y. Zhang, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “On-chip silicon optical phased array for two-dimensional beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 39, 941–944 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Thyln and L. Wosinski, “Integrated photonics in the 21st century,” Photon. Res. 2, 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, T. Sun, Y. Rao, M. Megens, T. Chan, B. Yoo, D. A. Horsley, M. C. Wu, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters,” Opt. Express 22, 20038–20044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. K. Tseng, W. T. Chen, K. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M. C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, J. O. Plouchart, A. V. Rylyakov, J. H. Song, F. E. Doany, and C. L. Schow, “Passive photonics in an unmodified CMOS technology with no post-processing required,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 393–396 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Maanovic, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. L. Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, and C. Waldschmidt, “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 60, 845–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

K. Van Acoleyen, H. Rogier, and R. Baets, “Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-Insulator,” Opt. Express 18, 13655–13660 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Scales and P. Berini, “Thin-film schottky barrier photodetector models,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 46, 633–643 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Natarajan, A. Komijani, X. Guan, A. Babakhani, and A. Hajimiri, “A 77-GHz phased-array transceiver with on-chip antennas in silicon: transmitter and local LO-path phase shifting,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 41, 2807–2819 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Hajimiri, H. Hashemi, A. Natarajan, X. Guan, and A. Komijani, “Integrated phased-array systems in silicon,” Proceedings of the IEEE,  93, 1637–1655 (2005).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

G. Moore, “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits,” Electron. Mag. 38, 114–116 (1965).

Abadeer, W.

A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

Abou-Khalil, M.

A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

Adabi, E.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Afshar, B.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ali, E.

S. Emami, R.F. Wiser, E. Ali, M.G. Forbes, M.Q. Gordon, G. Xiang, S. Lo, P.T. McElwee, J. Parker, J.R. Tani, J.M. Gilbert, and C.H. Doan, “A 60GHz CMOS phased-array transceiver pair for multi-Gb/s wireless communications,” IEEE Int. Solid State Cir. Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers 164–165 (2011).

Althouse, C.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Maanovic, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H. P.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Maanovic, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babakhani, A.

A. Natarajan, A. Komijani, X. Guan, A. Babakhani, and A. Hajimiri, “A 77-GHz phased-array transceiver with on-chip antennas in silicon: transmitter and local LO-path phase shifting,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 41, 2807–2819 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. L. Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Benoit, J.

A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

C. Scales and P. Berini, “Thin-film schottky barrier photodetector models,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 46, 633–643 (2010).
[Crossref]

Besoli, A.G.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Binetti, P. R.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Maanovic, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blanksby, A.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boers, M.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Botula, A.

A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E. J.

Budd, R.

J. Song, R. Budd, B. Lee, C. Schow, and F. Libsch, “Focusing grating couplers in unmodified 180-nm Silicon-on-Insulator CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 825–828 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castaneda, J.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chalvatzis, T.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, T.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

W. Yang, T. Sun, Y. Rao, M. Megens, T. Chan, B. Yoo, D. A. Horsley, M. C. Wu, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters,” Opt. Express 22, 20038–20044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “A 32 × 32 optical phased array using polysilicon sub-wavelength high-contrast-grating mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 19029–19039 (2014).

Chen, K. H.

C. K. Tseng, W. T. Chen, K. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M. C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, W. T.

C. K. Tseng, W. T. Chen, K. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M. C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
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B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with 50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 62, 2823–2832 (2014).
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M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thyln, L.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topak, E.

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, and C. Waldschmidt, “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 60, 845–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tseng, C. K.

C. K. Tseng, W. T. Chen, K. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M. C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
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Tsuifang, Yeh

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van Acoleyen, K.

Vassiliou, I.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
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A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

Waldschmidt, C.

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, and C. Waldschmidt, “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 60, 845–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weigel, R.

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, and C. Waldschmidt, “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 60, 845–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiser, R.F.

S. Emami, R.F. Wiser, E. Ali, M.G. Forbes, M.Q. Gordon, G. Xiang, S. Lo, P.T. McElwee, J. Parker, J.R. Tani, J.M. Gilbert, and C.H. Doan, “A 60GHz CMOS phased-array transceiver pair for multi-Gb/s wireless communications,” IEEE Int. Solid State Cir. Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers 164–165 (2011).

Wolf, R.

A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

Wosinski, L.

Wu, M. C.

W. Yang, T. Sun, Y. Rao, M. Megens, T. Chan, B. Yoo, D. A. Horsley, M. C. Wu, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters,” Opt. Express 22, 20038–20044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “A 32 × 32 optical phased array using polysilicon sub-wavelength high-contrast-grating mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 19029–19039 (2014).

Xiang, G.

S. Emami, R.F. Wiser, E. Ali, M.G. Forbes, M.Q. Gordon, G. Xiang, S. Lo, P.T. McElwee, J. Parker, J.R. Tani, J.M. Gilbert, and C.H. Doan, “A 60GHz CMOS phased-array transceiver pair for multi-Gb/s wireless communications,” IEEE Int. Solid State Cir. Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers 164–165 (2011).

Xu, X.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “A 32 × 32 optical phased array using polysilicon sub-wavelength high-contrast-grating mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 19029–19039 (2014).

W. Yang, T. Sun, Y. Rao, M. Megens, T. Chan, B. Yoo, D. A. Horsley, M. C. Wu, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters,” Opt. Express 22, 20038–20044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, B.

Yoo, B. W.

B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “A 32 × 32 optical phased array using polysilicon sub-wavelength high-contrast-grating mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 19029–19039 (2014).

Yu, A.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zochios, G.

M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, and C. Waldschmidt, “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 60, 845–860 (2012).
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M. Boers, I. Vassiliou, S. Sarkar, S. Nicolson, E. Adabi, B. Afshar, B. Perumana, T. Chalvatzis, S. Kavadias, P. Sen, Chan Wei Liat, A. Yu, A. Parsa, M. Nariman, Yoon Seunghwan, A.G. Besoli, C. Kyriazidou, G. Zochios, N. Kocaman, A. Garg, H. Eberhart, P. Yang, Xie Hongyu, H.J Kim, A. Tarighat, D. Garrett, A. Blanksby, Wong Mong Kuan, D.P. Thirupathi, S. Mak, R. Srinivasan, A. Ibrahim, E. Sengul, V. Roussel, Huang Po-Chao, Yeh Tsuifang, M. Mese, J. Castaneda, B. Ibrahim, T. Sowlati, M. Rofougaran, and A. Rofougaran, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” IEEE J. Solid State Cir. 49, 3031–3045 (2014).
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J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, and C. Waldschmidt, “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 60, 845–860 (2012).
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Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. K. Tseng, W. T. Chen, K. H. Chen, H. D. Liu, Y. Kang, N. Na, and M. C. M. Lee, “A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25 Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3225 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Emami, R.F. Wiser, E. Ali, M.G. Forbes, M.Q. Gordon, G. Xiang, S. Lo, P.T. McElwee, J. Parker, J.R. Tani, J.M. Gilbert, and C.H. Doan, “A 60GHz CMOS phased-array transceiver pair for multi-Gb/s wireless communications,” IEEE Int. Solid State Cir. Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers 164–165 (2011).

A. Botula, A. Joseph, J. Slinkman, R. Wolf, Z.-X. He, D. Ioannou, L. Wagner, M. Gordon, M. Abou-Khalil, R. Phelps, M. Gautsch, W. Abadeer, D. Harmon, M. Levy, J. Benoit, and J. Dunn, “A thin-film SOI 180nm CMOS RF switch technology,” IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the 8 × 8 monolithic optical phased array transceiver with independent amplitude and phase control at each element. In the transmit mode, the laser light is coupled in to the input Grating Coupler (GC) and delivered to each of the 64 antennas using silicon waveguides. In the receive mode, the impinged light on the optical phased array, after being collected and processed by each element, is combined into one field and is sent out through the output GC; (b) Chip microphotograph of the fabricated optical phased array transceiver in a commercial 180 nm Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS process featuring over 300 distinct optical components and over 74,000 distinct electrical components; (c) Close-up view of the Optical Phased Array core consisting of 64 optical variable phase shifters, 64 optical variable attenuators, 64 optical nano-antennas, and 128 metal lines routing the control signals from the on-chip electronic circuitry to the optical core; (d) Close-up view of a unit optical element consisting of a variable phase shifter, a variable attenuator, and a nano-antenna.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical variable attenuator is constructed as an interferometer with polysilicon heater in between. The relative phase change between the two paths, due to thermo-optical effect that is more prominent in the longer branch, results in amplitude tunability of over 16 dB; (b) Thermo-optical variable phase shifter is a meandered waveguide with poly-silicon heaters in between to increase the power efficiency and decrease the voltage swing that is needed to cover 2π optical phase shift. Optical antenna is designed with 50% radiation efficiency and compact footprint of 1 μm × 3.55 μm. Combination of polysilicon and crystalline silicon are used to modulate the silicon height and hence create grating couplers to radiate light; (c) Measured phase and amplitude response of a typical optical variable attenuator as a function of heater power consumption at 1550 nm wavelength; (d) Finite difference time domain simulations of far field (left) and near field (right) radiation patterns of each individual nano-antenna.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the control electronic circuitry for each thermo-optical heater. The current of each heater, Ih, is controlled by an independent 7-bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). Programmed bits, b0 to b6, are set using digital shift registers. DAC generates controllable currents by copying and multiplication of reference current, Iref, that is generated to be independent of fabrication process, temperature, and supply voltage variations. Driver circuitry consists of multiple stacked transistors to handle large voltage swings necessary to deliver up to 100 mW to each thermo-optical heater; (b) Routing of the control lines from the electronic circuitry to the 8 × 8 optical phased array transceiver, using top-level metalization, is shown. The common electrical terminal of all the 128 thermo-optical heaters are connected together using bottommost metal lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The phase and amplitude profile is un-uniform across the OPA (left) even for the same nominal setting due to natural fabrication process variations, mismatches, and temperature gradient leading to incoherent far-field radiation pattern (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of generated near- and far-field radiation patterns using the Optical Phased Array in the transmit mode with the corresponding amplitude and phase profile settings; (a) Far field of focused beam generated by uniform phase and amplitude profiles shows 12 dB peak to first side-lobe ratio; (b) Gaussian amplitude profile and uniform phase profile create a wider far-field main lobe with 11 dB side-lobe suppression. The main beam generated in (b) is steered 1.6° to the edge of each interference order in horizontal, (c) and vertical, (d), directions by progressing π phase shift between columns and rows, respectively; (e) Far field image nearly resembling a straight line is created by setting proper amplitude and phase profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) A fiber with angle θ with respect to normal axis of OPA is placed far enough to create an impinging plane wave on the OPA. Each nano-photonic antenna collects a portion of the incident field, adjusts its amplitude and phase, and couples it to the combining waveguide. The total collected field is detected through another fiber located at the top of the output grating coupler; (b) Received field by each nano-photonic antenna is coupled to the combining waveguide through couplers judiciously designed to ensure near-equal coupled signal values across the array. Optical termination is used to dissipate the received power residue and eliminate the unwanted reflections.

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