Abstract

In this work we present the first fully-integrated free-space beam-steering chip using the hybrid silicon platform. The photonic integrated circuit (PIC) consists of 164 optical components including lasers, amplifiers, photodiodes, phase tuners, grating couplers, splitters, and a photonic crystal lens. The PIC exhibited steering over 23° x 3.6° with beam widths of 1° x 0.6°.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).
  2. K. Van Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1477–1479 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Van Acoleyen, H. Rogier, and R. Baets, “Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-Insulator,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13655–13660 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. K. Doylend, M. J. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.
  9. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon free-space source with integrated beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 8629, Silicon Photonics VIII, (2013).
  10. A. Yaacobi, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated phased array for wide-angle beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4575–4578 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10202–10209 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Free-space beam steering using silicon waveguide surface gratings,” IEEE Photonics Conference, 547–548 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic dynamic optical channel leveler with external feedback loop,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13805–13812 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Van Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1477–1479 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bauters, J. F.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Free-space beam steering using silicon waveguide surface gratings,” IEEE Photonics Conference, 547–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Free-space beam steering using silicon waveguide surface gratings,” IEEE Photonics Conference, 547–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

Chen, R. T.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

Coolbaugh, D.

Davenport, M. L.

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

Doylend, J. K.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic dynamic optical channel leveler with external feedback loop,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13805–13812 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Free-space beam steering using silicon waveguide surface gratings,” IEEE Photonics Conference, 547–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, A. W.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J.

Heck, M. J. R.

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Free-space beam steering using silicon waveguide surface gratings,” IEEE Photonics Conference, 547–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

Hulme, J. C.

Jágerská, J.

Jain, S.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

Jessop, P. E.

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Knights, A. P.

Koch, B. R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurczveil, G.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

Kwong, D.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Le Thomas, N.

Leake, G.

Liang, D.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lively, E.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moresco, M.

Paniccia, M. J.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

H. Park, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Free-space beam steering using silicon waveguide surface gratings,” IEEE Photonics Conference, 547–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raday, O.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rogier, H.

Srinivasan, S.

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

Sun, J.

A. Yaacobi, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated phased array for wide-angle beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4575–4578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sysak, M. N.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-Wavelength Silicon Evanescent Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

C. Zhang, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, M. J. R. Heck, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Low threshold and high speed short cavity distributed feedback hybrid silicon lasers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10202–10209 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Acoleyen, K.

Watts, M. R.

A. Yaacobi, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated phased array for wide-angle beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4575–4578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaacobi, A.

A. Yaacobi, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated phased array for wide-angle beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4575–4578 (2014).
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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
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Zhang, C.

Zhang, Y.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “1 × 12 Unequally spaced waveguide array for actively tuned optical phased array on a silicon nanomembrane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051104 (2011).
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M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2013).

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Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Other (3)

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III-V silicon photonic steerable laser,” IEEE Photonics Conference, Sept 23–27, 2012.

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon free-space source with integrated beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 8629, Silicon Photonics VIII, (2013).

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[Crossref]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layout of the fully integrated PIC. Redundant tunable laser sources are followed by semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) pre-amplifiers. The signal passes through a 32 channel splitter and is then tuned in both phase and amplitude for each channel. The channels feed a surface grating array where the beam is emitted at an angle determined by wavelength in the θ axis and by relative phase in the ψ axis. A graded index lens images the remaining beam power into the far field and where it is measured by a photodiode array for on-chip feedback.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of tunable Vernier ring laser with (a) two gain regions and (b) one gain region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated angular power distribution for 4, 5, and 6 μm spacing between emitters with an inset of the calculated side mode separation between main lobe peak and side lobe (measured where the side lobe intensity rises to −10 dB relative to main lobe peak which is where the useful field of view ends) vs. emitter pitch, (b) calculated far field beam full width half max (FWHM) vs. emitter pitch for 8, 16, and 32 channels, (c) calculated beam FWHM vs. side lobe separation based on varying emitter pitch, and (d) calculated number of resolvable spots (i.e. side lobe separation divided by beam width) vs. side lobe separation based on varying emitter pitch.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated far field for (a) uniform and (b) Gaussian emitter spacing using no relative phase or output power differences between channels. Calculated far field for (c) uniform array with linear relative phase shift and (d) Gaussian array with linear relative phase shift adjusted for irregular spacing to tune the main lobe to −10°. The Gaussian array performs better when considering the full signal, but (c)-(d) illustrate the larger tuning range of the uniform array within a field of view while maintaining greater than 10 dB side mode suppression.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) A cross-section of the calculated refractive index profile for the GRIN lens. The cross section is taken at 250 μm into the lens. (b) Simulated intensity passing through the lens with zero phase shift between channels. The focal length is marked at 473 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated lens output power for linear relative phase delays between adjacent channels in degrees.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Confocal microscope picture of the fully integrated beam-steering PIC. The chip size is y x z cm2. (b) Photos of the mounted and wire-bonded chip placed in a water-cooled copper block and (c) the PCB attached to the assembly.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Schematic of the test setup and (b)-(c) images of the test setup.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 SEMs of (a) laser and pre-amplifier gain elements, (b) InP tapers for adiabatic transitions between III/V gain and silicon waveguides with magnified images of the taper tip immediately following mesa etching, (c) completed laser and pre-amplifier, (d) ring mirror and (e) ring-to-bus coupler.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Measured peak wavelength vs. tuning power from one mirror, (b) measured optical spectra, and (c) measured output angle vs. predicted output angle (from wavelength measurement). A wavelength tuning efficiency of 0.28 nm/mW was achieved and the tuning efficiency of predicted and measured angle were 0.030 and 0.034 °/mW respectively. Since the laser was integrated on-chip it was unable to be measured individually so the full spectra SMSR is not available.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Transmission through a 2 mm Mach-Zehnder test structure showing a phase modulator dependency on power implying a thermo-optically dominated device on the integrated chip. Test run measurements of similar devices showing (b) 14 mA/π tuning efficiency with data and modeled fit and (c) a 3dB bandwidth greater than 50 MHz.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Responsivity and (b) quantum efficiency of the 470 μm long photodiodes at −5 V.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 SEMs of (a) input waveguides and the beginning of the GRIN lens, (b) a zoomed in SEM of insufficiently etched holes that led to lens distortion of the beam, and (c) a close-up image of the photonic crystal lens etched spots.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 SEM of output grating array, lens and photodiode array.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Two-dimensional beam-steering plots spanning 23° in ψ and 3.6° in θ.

Equations (1)

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sinθ= Λ n eff λ Λ

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