Abstract

The polarization evolution and control of a femtosecond laser pulse in the wake of molecular alignment inside a laser filament was investigated. A weak probe pulse was delayed with respect to the field-free revivals of the pre-excited rotational wave-packets created by an infrared filamenting pulse in nitrogen gas. 30° was set between the pump and probe's initial linear polarization directions in order to control the output probe's polarization ellipse. The detailed physical response of the probe’s polarization states was analyzed in the wake of alignment and dephasing of molecular N2. The probe’s polarization was modulated by varying the retarded time between the pump and probe pulses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, A. York, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot, space- and time-resolved measurement of rotational wavepacket revivals in H2, D2, N2, O2, and N2O,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11341 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. P. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Béjot, Y. Petit, L. Bonacina, J. Kasparian, M. Moret, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrafast gaseous “half-wave plate”,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7564–7570 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Yuan, T. J. Wang, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. A. Makarov, H. P. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of birefringence inside a filament,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013838 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Marceau, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast birefringence induced by a femtosecond laser filament in gases,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1417–1419 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. Makarov, I. Perezhogin, C. Marceau, Y. Chen, S. Yuan, T. Wang, H. Zeng, A. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Polarization rotation due to femtosecond filamentation in an atomic gas,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2904–2906 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Direct measurement of field-free molecular alignment by spatial (de)focusing effects,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Q. Tong, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of field-free molecular alignment by cross-defocusing assisted polarization spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16300–16305 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Polarization separator created by a filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2731–2733 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Yuan, T. J. Wang, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. A. Makarov, H. P. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of birefringence inside a filament,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013838 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. Makarov, I. Perezhogin, C. Marceau, Y. Chen, S. Yuan, T. Wang, H. Zeng, A. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Polarization rotation due to femtosecond filamentation in an atomic gas,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2904–2906 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. P. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, Y. Petit, L. Bonacina, J. Kasparian, M. Moret, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrafast gaseous “half-wave plate”,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7564–7570 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Polarization separator created by a filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2731–2733 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

Benedetti, E.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonacina, L.

Cai, H.

Calegari, F.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Châteauneuf, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. H.

S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, A. York, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot, space- and time-resolved measurement of rotational wavepacket revivals in H2, D2, N2, O2, and N2O,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11341 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubois, J.

Faucher, O.

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Direct measurement of field-free molecular alignment by spatial (de)focusing effects,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y. H.

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

France, M.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gasilov, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Génier, S.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Guérin, S.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jauslin, H. R.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosareva, O.

Lange, R.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lavorel, B.

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Direct measurement of field-free molecular alignment by spatial (de)focusing effects,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, W. X.

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

Makarov, V.

Makarov, V. A.

S. Yuan, T. J. Wang, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. A. Makarov, H. P. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of birefringence inside a filament,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marceau, C.

Milchberg, H.

Milchberg, H. M.

S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moret, M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nibbering, E.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, H. F.

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

Panov, N.

Pashayan, Y. T.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perezhogin, I.

Petit, Y.

Prade, B.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Qi, H.

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. P. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Renard, M.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renard, V.

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Direct measurement of field-free molecular alignment by spatial (de)focusing effects,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ripoche, J. F.

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rouzée, A.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savel’ev, A.

Seideman, T.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

Tong, Y. Q.

Varma, S.

S. Varma, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Trapping and destruction of long-range high-intensity optical filaments by molecular quantum wakes in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 205001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, A. York, and H. Milchberg, “Single-shot, space- and time-resolved measurement of rotational wavepacket revivals in H2, D2, N2, O2, and N2O,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11341 (2007).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Wang, T. J.

S. Yuan, T. J. Wang, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. A. Makarov, H. P. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of birefringence inside a filament,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013838 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J. P.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Q. Tong, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of field-free molecular alignment by cross-defocusing assisted polarization spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16300–16305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. P. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[Crossref]

York, A.

Yuan, S.

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zeng, H. P.

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yuan, T. J. Wang, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. A. Makarov, H. P. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of birefringence inside a filament,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013838 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Q. Tong, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of field-free molecular alignment by cross-defocusing assisted polarization spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16300–16305 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. P. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T. J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Nonintrusive monitoring and quantitative analysis of strong laser-field-induced impulsive alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 033420 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Li, W. X. Li, Y. H. Feng, J. Liu, H. F. Pan, and H. P. Zeng, “Measurement of molecular polarizability anisotropy via alignment-induced spatial focusing and defocusing,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 052515 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yuan, T. J. Wang, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. A. Makarov, H. P. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of birefringence inside a filament,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013838 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. P. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (3042 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3598 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of our experimental setup. Time delay of the pump pulse (800 nm) can be changed by a delay stage. DM: dichroic mirror; HWP: half-wave plate; CCD: charge coupled device; ND filter: neutral density filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The calculated revival for molecular N2 (< cos 2 θ>1/3) along the field polarization of the probe pulse. (b) Experimentally measured molecular alignment signal of N2. (c) The polarization scheme for the probe. ϕ is rotation angle of the probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Movies of the output polarization diagrams of a probe beam under each value of dephasing, with 45° (see Media 1) (a) and 30° (see Media 2) (b) between the initial polarization direction of the probe and the pump.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization analysis of the transmitted probe in the wake of the pump for initially 30° between the pump and probe polarization direction at different delay position as labeled in Fig. 2(a). Black-dotted lines correspond to probe polarization state at delay-A in Fig. 2(a), while the Red-dotted lines correspond to probe polarization state at delays B-E in Fig. 2(a). Black dash line is at 30° and red dash lines indicate the main axis of the probe polarization. ϕ is rotation angle of the probe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rotation angle of the major axis (red circle) (a) and the ellipticity (red circle, solid line) (b) of the probe’s elliptical polarization as a function of the relative delay between pump and probe. Numerical simulation (black curve) at 296 K for a Gaussian pump envelope of 80 fs pulse duration.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n align (r,t)=δ n X align (r,t)δ n y align (r,t)=3π(N/ n 0 )Δα(< cos 2 θ > t 1/3).
ε=Δ n align ω 0 L/ c 0 =3π ω 0 LΔα(N/ n 0 c 0 )(< cos 2 θ > t 1/3)=η(< cos 2 θ > t 1/3),
tan2( ψ probe input ϕ)=2 E x E y cosε/( E x 2 E y 2 ),
ϕ( ε t )=0.5arctan( 3 cos ε t )+ 30 o

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