Abstract

We report the initial evaluation of a mid-infrared QCL-coupled silicon-on-sapphire ring resonator gas sensor. The device probes the N2O 2241.79 cm−1 optical transition (R23 line) in the ν3 vibrational band. N2O concentration is deduced using a non-linear least squares fit, based on coupled-mode theory, of the change in ring resonator Q due to gas absorption losses in the evanescent portion of the waveguide optical mode. These early experiments demonstrated response to 5000 ppmv N2O.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

T. H. Stievater, M. W. Pruessner, D. Park, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, D. A. Kozak, R. Furstenberg, S. A. Holmstrom, and J. B. Khurgin, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using functionalized microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 39, 969–972 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Xia, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, W. Gao, J. Shu, and Q. Xu, “Suspended Si ring resonator for MWIR application,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1122–1124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nature Photon. 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. A. Yebo, P. Lommens, Z. Hens, and R. Baets, “An integrated optic ethanol vapor sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator coated with a porous ZnO film,” Opt. Express 18, 11859–11866 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Cavity-enhanced on-chip absorption spectroscopy using microring resonators,” Opt. Express 16, 11930–11936 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16, 4296–4301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, “Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1896– 1898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

W. G. Jr, Y. Hidaka, and T. Tanzawa, “Refractivity of combustion gases,” Combust. Flame 40, 213–219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

Armani, A. M.

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bailey, R. C.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Banuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, T.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

Bowman, A. L.

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bulu, I.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, W.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clarke, J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dulashko, Y.

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, “Optical ring resonators for biochemical and chemical sensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 205–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, “Optical liquid ring resonator sensor,” Opt. Express 15, 14376–14381 (2007).
[Crossref]

Flood, E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frank, I. W.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

Frish, M.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

Furstenberg, R.

Gao, W.

Gill, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glynn, B.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goad, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grillet, C.

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hens, Z.

Herr, T.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hidaka, Y.

W. G. Jr, Y. Hidaka, and T. Tanzawa, “Refractivity of combustion gases,” Combust. Flame 40, 213–219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hofer, J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holmstrom, S. A.

Holzwarth, R.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D.

Ilic, R.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ja, S.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

Jr, W. G.

W. G. Jr, Y. Hidaka, and T. Tanzawa, “Refractivity of combustion gases,” Combust. Flame 40, 213–219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kaplinski, L.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kindt, J. T.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, O.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1669–1671 (2002).
[Crossref]

Knobbe, E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kozak, D. A.

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ksendzov, A.

Kurg, A.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laderer, M. C.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

Li, F.

Lin, Y.

Lipson, M.

Little, B.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lommens, P.

Loncar, M.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luchansky, M. S.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGill, R. A.

Moghe, Y.

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

Nitkowski, A.

O’Brien, C.

Park, D.

Picqué, N.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruessner, M. W.

Qavi, A. J.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Ramachandran, A.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Read, A.

Robinson, J. T.

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schacht, E.

Scheler, O.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schliesser, a.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shankar, R.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

Sohlström, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nature Photon. 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

Spott, A.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stievater, T. H.

Sumetsky, M.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, “Optical ring resonators for biochemical and chemical sensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 205–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanzawa, T.

W. G. Jr, Y. Hidaka, and T. Tanzawa, “Refractivity of combustion gases,” Combust. Flame 40, 213–219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vos, K. D.

Wainner, R. T.

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

Wald, L.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Washburn, A. L.

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yebo, N. A.

Zhang, X.

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

Y. Sun and X. Fan, “Optical ring resonators for biochemical and chemical sensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 205–211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “High-Q optical sensors for chemical and biological analysis,” Anal. Chem. 84, 793–821 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. Hryniewicz, S. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 939–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmRNA using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 36, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combust. Flame (1)

W. G. Jr, Y. Hidaka, and T. Tanzawa, “Refractivity of combustion gases,” Combust. Flame 40, 213–219 (1981).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, a. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nature Photon. 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Frish, R. Shankar, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, M. C. Laderer, R. T. Wainner, M. G. Allen, and M. Lončar, “Progress Toward MWIR Chip-Scale Integrated-Optic TDLAS Gas Sensors,” Proc. SPIE 9101, 8631–8639 (2014).

Other (1)

“The HITRAN Database,” http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of an all-pass ring resonator. a is the field attenuation co-efficient and t is transmission co-efficient. (b) Simulation of ring resonator spectra showing the impact on the ring resonator Q of 5% N2O.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of experimental setup showing the beam path, optical elements, and the free-space background paths within the controlled gas environment. (Inset: Picture of the custom gas cell for evaluation of ring resonator chips.) (b) Far-field emission (intensity in A.U.) of the SOS waveguide device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra of ring resonators in an N2O and zero gas (N2) environment showing both impact of fringes from the waveguide and the background N2O absorption. (b) The ∼0.05 cm−1 scan-to-scan error of the external cavity QCL is also demonstrated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra of waveguides with and without ring resonators in the presence of both N2O and zero gas. (b) N2O background absorbance experimental data with fit and calculated dispersion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison to theory of measured ring resonator Q in zero gas and in 5000 ppmv N2O. (b) Background normalized spectral data with fits used for the calculation of ring resonance Q in the presence of N2O. Fits of ring resonance spectra away from an N2O absorption line show no change vs. the zero gas case.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( λ ) = a 2 + | t | 2 2 a | t | cos ( λ ) 1 + a 2 + | t | 2 2 a | t | cos ( λ )
cos ( λ ) 1 2 π 2 L 2 n g 2 λ 0 4 ( λ λ 0 ) 2
α tot = α I + Γ α gas
α gas ( λ , T ) = S ( λ , T ) G ( λ λ 0 ) N
a gas 2 = I I 0 = e α tot L
T ( λ ) = a gas 2 + | t | 2 2 a gas | t | cos ( λ ) 1 + a gas 2 + | t | 2 2 a gas | t | cos ( λ )
t = ω 0 2 Q 0 ω 0 2 Q c i Δ ω ω 0 2 Q 0 + ω 0 2 Q c i Δ ω
T = t t *
1 Q cav = 1 Q 0 + 1 Q c
1 Q tot = 1 Q cav + 1 Q abs , where 1 Q abs = Γ α gas λ 0 2 π n eff
L eff = Γ Q λ 0 2 π n eff

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