Abstract

We review the most recent technological and application advances of quantum cascade lasers, underlining the present milestones and future directions from the Mid-infrared to the Terahertz spectral range. Challenges and developments, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue, are also introduced.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

D. Ristanic, B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 041101 (2015).
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F. Castellano, S. Zanotto, L. H. Li, A. Pitanti, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Distributed feedback terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers with dual periodicity gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 011103 (2015).
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2014 (25)

M. S. Vitiello, M. Nobile, A. Ronzani, A. Tredicucci, F. Castellano, V. Talora, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5884 (2014).
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G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yamanishi, T. Hirohata, S. Hayashi, K. Fujita, and K. Tanaka, “Electrical flicker-noise generated by filling and emptying of impurity states in injectors of quantum-cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(18), 183106 (2014).
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S. Bartalini, L. Consolino, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, P. Bartolini, A. Taschin, M. De Pas, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Torre, “Frequency-comb-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021006 (2014).

M. Krall, M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Subwavelength micropillar array terahertz lasers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 274–282 (2014).
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M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22, 3334–3348 (2014).

E. Fasci, N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, L. Hilico, L. Gianfrani, P. Laporta, A. Castrillo, and G. Galzerano, “Narrow-linewidth quantum cascade laser at 8.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4946–4949 (2014).
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P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y. C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2039–2046 (2014).
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P. Reininger, B. Schwarz, H. Detz, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 091108 (2014).

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
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M. Beeler, C. Bougerol, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Pseudo-square AlGaN/GaN quantum wells for terahertz absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(13), 131106 (2014).
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C. Edmunds, J. Shao, M. Shirazi-HD, M. J. Manfra, and O. Malis, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021109 (2014).
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B. A. Burnett and B. S. Williams, “Density matrix model for polarons in a terahertz quantum dot cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155309 (2014).
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T. Grange, “Nanowire terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141105 (2014).
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S. Jung, A. Jiang, Y. Jiang, K. Vijayraghavan, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable monolithic room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4267 (2014).
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Q. Y. Lu, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201102 (2014).
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N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “High power operation of λ∼5.2–11μm strain balanced quantum cascade lasers based on the same material composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071106 (2014).
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S. Bartalini, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Quantum cascade lasers: a versatile source for precise measurements in the mid/far-infrared range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(1), 012001 (2014).
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D. Chastanet, A. Bousseksou, F. Julien, G. Lollia, M. Bahriz, A. N. Baranov, R. Teissier, and R. Colombelli, “High temperature, single mode, long infrared (l = 17.8 µm) InAs-based QC lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 111118 (2014).
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K. Ohtani, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Double metal waveguide InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers emitting at 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 121115 (2014).
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J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, A. Hugi, and J. Faist, “Coherent frequency combs produced by self frequency modulation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(8), 081118 (2014).
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G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
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D. Burghoff, T. Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. L. Jian-Rong Gao, J.-R. Hayton, J. L. Gao, Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151105 (2014).
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2013 (11)

M. Bahriz, G. Lollia, P. Laffaille, A. N. Baranov, and R. Teissier, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers operating near 20 μm,” Electron. Lett. 49(19), 1238–1240 (2013).
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C. Deutsch, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, M. Krall, M. Brandstetter, and M. Aaron, “InGaAs/GaAsSb terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 34, 374–385 (2013).
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D. Li, J. Shao, L. Tang, C. Edmunds, G. Gardner, M. J. Manfra, and O. Malis, “Temperature-dependence of negative differential resistance in GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074024 (2013).
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M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “High power terahertz quantum cascade lasers with symmetric wafer bonded active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171113 (2013).
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S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 203107 (2013).

K. Ohtani, M. Beck, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on quaternary AlInGaAs barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041103 (2013).
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P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, M. V. Santacroce, V. Spagnolo, M. S. Vitiello, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, S. Fathololoumi, G. S. Razavipour, and Z. Wasilewski, “Electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade active regions with phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction scheme,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10172–10181 (2013).
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I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hubers, R. Eichholz, S. G. Pavlov, and H. Richter, “High resolution terahertz spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 325–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “THz QCL-based cryogen-free spectrometer for in situ trace gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 13(3), 3331–3340 (2013).
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S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
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2012 (18)

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a Terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
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L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
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G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
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J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
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S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
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A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7 μm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4382–4388 (2012).
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M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
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F. Cappelli, I. Galli, S. Borri, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Subkilohertz linewidth room-temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade laser using a molecular sub-Doppler reference,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4811–4813 (2012).
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Y. Chassagneux, Q. J. Wang, S. P. Khanna, E. Strupiechonski, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, F. Capasso, M. A. Belkin, and R. Colombelli, “Limiting Factors to the Temperature Performance of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on the Resonant-Phonon Depopulation Scheme,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 2(1), 83–92 (2012).
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2011 (10)

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
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Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “MEMS-based tunable terahertz wire-laser over 330 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 692–694 (2011).
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L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
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A. Bismuto, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “High power Sb-free quantum cascade laser emitting at 3.3µm above 350 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191104 (2011).
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Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231109 (2011).
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R. Eichholz, H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hubers, “Multi-channel terahertz grating spectrometer with quantum-cascade laser and microbolometer array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141112 (2011).
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2010 (14)

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
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Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
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L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-periodic distributed feedback laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 165–169 (2010).
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C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi, “Reliability in room-temperature negative differential resistance characteristics of low-aluminum content AlGaN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181109 (2010).
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2009 (11)

M. Nobile, P. Klang, E. Mujagic, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade laser utilising aluminium-free material system: InGaAs/GaAsSb lattice-matched to InP,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1031–1033 (2009).
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A. Wade, G. Federov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 41–45 (2009).
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M. A. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 952–967 (2009).
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S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser at 4.3 µm,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7440–7449 (2009).
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M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
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Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
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S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
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2008 (7)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201101 (2008).

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
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M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of Quantum-Cascade-Lasers: hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
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M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
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E. Bellotti, K. Driscoll, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Monte Carlo study of GaN versus GaAs terahertz quantum cascade structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101112 (2008).
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R. Nelander and A. Wacker, “Temperature dependence of the gain profile for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081102 (2008).
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2007 (8)

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111118 (2007).
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S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
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S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, and L. Gianfrani, “Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 microm,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 988–990 (2007).
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R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 mum,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
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A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
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M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 43(10), 573 (2007).
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2006 (4)

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. F. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
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H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
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M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, T. Losco, R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Electron-lattice coupling in bound-to-continuum THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241109 (2006).
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M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131114 (2006).
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M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111115 (2005).
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Q. Yang, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, L. Kirste, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, “GaInAs/AlAsSb quantum-cascade lasers operating up to 400 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131107 (2005).
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Q. Yang, W. Bronner, C. Manz, R. Moritz, C. Mann, G. Kaufel, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, “Continuous-wave operation of GaInAs-AlGaAsSb quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2283–2285 (2005).
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D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Nat. Photonics (13)

A. Wade, G. Federov, D. Smirnov, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Magnetic-field-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser operating up to 225 K,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 41–45 (2009).
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D. Burghoff, T. Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J. L. Jian-Rong Gao, J.-R. Hayton, J. L. Gao, Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
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Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
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B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5, 17–25 (2007).

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. Kuboya, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Quantum cascade lasers that emit more light than heat,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 99–102 (2010).
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P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 95–98 (2010).
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M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
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Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
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L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-periodic distributed feedback laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 165–169 (2010).
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M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a Terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
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S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636 (2010).
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J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
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M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42–47 (2014).
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S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of hbar ω/kB,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 166–171 (2011).
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A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
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Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
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Opt. Express (13)

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
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M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
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S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser at 4.3 µm,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7440–7449 (2009).
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M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
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S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
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A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7 μm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4382–4388 (2012).
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W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
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T. S. Mansuripur, S. Menzel, R. Blanchard, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers using sampled grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23339–23348 (2012).
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M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
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R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 mum,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7357–7366 (2007).
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P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, M. V. Santacroce, V. Spagnolo, M. S. Vitiello, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, S. Fathololoumi, G. S. Razavipour, and Z. Wasilewski, “Electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade active regions with phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction scheme,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10172–10181 (2013).
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M. Krall, M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Subwavelength micropillar array terahertz lasers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 274–282 (2014).
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M. Wienold, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, R. Sharma, A. Tahraoui, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “High-temperature, continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides and third-order distributed feedback,” Opt. Express 22, 3334–3348 (2014).

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E. Fasci, N. Coluccelli, M. Cassinerio, A. Gambetta, L. Hilico, L. Gianfrani, P. Laporta, A. Castrillo, and G. Galzerano, “Narrow-linewidth quantum cascade laser at 8.6 μm,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4946–4949 (2014).
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A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
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F. Cappelli, I. Galli, S. Borri, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Subkilohertz linewidth room-temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade laser using a molecular sub-Doppler reference,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4811–4813 (2012).
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Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “MEMS-based tunable terahertz wire-laser over 330 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 692–694 (2011).
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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operating temperature plot as a function of the emission wavelength (or frequency, top axis) for quantum cascade lasers.

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