Abstract

High-speed terahertz (THz) reflection three-dimensional (3D) imaging is demonstrated using electronically-controlled optical sampling (ECOPS) and beam steering. ECOPS measurement is used for scanning an axial range of 7.8 mm in free space at 1 kHz scan rate while a transverse range of 100 × 100 mm2 is scanned using beam steering instead of moving an imaging target. Telecentric f-θ lenses with axial and non-axial symmetry have been developed for beam steering. It is experimentally demonstrated that the non-axially symmetric lens has better characteristics than the axially symmetric lens. The total scan time depends on the number of points in a transverse range. For example, it takes 40 s for 200 × 200 points and 10 s for 100 × 100 points. To demonstrate the application of the imaging technique to nondestructive testing, THz 3D tomographic images of a glass fiber reinforced polymer sample with artificial internal defects have been acquired using the lenses for comparison.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

Y. Kim and D.-S. Yee, “High-speed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy based on electronically controlled optical sampling,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3715–3717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 019001 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. P. Mickan and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Int. J. Hi. Spe. Ele. Syst. 13(02), 601–676 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

Abbot, D.

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Abraham, E.

Araki, T.

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blackshire, J.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bohn, M.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boivin, L.

Cho, S. H.

Dietz, R. J. B.

Dobroiu, A.

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 019001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Globisch, B.

Göbel, T.

Gray, D.

Heinen, B.

Hunsche, S.

Ichino, S.

Jewariya, M.

Jin, K. H.

Jinno, H.

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kasai, S.

Katletz, S.

Kawai, M.

Kawase, K.

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-G.

Kitaguchi, T.

Koch, M.

Leisching, P.

Lin, H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Madaras, E.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maikusa, N.

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. P. Mickan and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Int. J. Hi. Spe. Ele. Syst. 13(02), 601–676 (2003).
[Crossref]

Minami, M. A.

Mittleman, D. M.

Morita, Y.

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 019001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nagai, M.

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nishizawa, N.

Nuss, M. C.

Ohgi, Y.

Ohtake, H.

Otani, C.

N. Sunaguchi, Y. Sasaki, N. Maikusa, M. Kawai, T. Yuasa, and C. Otani, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9558–9570 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 019001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ouchi, T.

Pfleger, M.

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pühringer, H.

Puppe, T.

Reightler, R.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

Schell, M.

Scherger, B.

Stoik, C.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suizu, K.

Sunaguchi, N.

Takayanagi, J.

Uchida, H.

Ung, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vieweg, N.

Wang, S.

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesauer, K.

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, M.

Yasuda, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yasui, T.

Ye, J. C.

Yee, D.-S.

Yin, X.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yuasa, T.

Zach, A.

Zhang, X.-C.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. P. Mickan and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Int. J. Hi. Spe. Ele. Syst. 13(02), 601–676 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Hi. Spe. Ele. Syst. (1)

S. P. Mickan and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Int. J. Hi. Spe. Ele. Syst. 13(02), 601–676 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[Crossref]

NDT Int. (1)

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int. 43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 019001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Zemax demo can be downloaded at http://www.zemax.com/support/downloads/download-demo .

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, 1991).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MP4 (2355 KB)     
» Media 2: MP4 (3820 KB)     
» Media 3: MP4 (3304 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for our high-speed THz reflection 3D imaging system using beam steering. EM: THz emitter, PM: off-axis parabolic mirror, BS: silicon beam splitter, GS: 2D galvanometer scanner, DT: THz detector, AMP: current amplifier, NC: nonlinear crystal, PD: photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simple illustration showing the operation of the beam scanner. (b) Picture of the developed beam scanner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Design for the axially symmetric lens. C-scan image (b) of the grid-pattern mask, OPLD image (c) of the flat metal mirror, and B-scan images ((d) and (e)) of the flat metal mirror on the X and Y axes, respectively, obtained using the axially symmetric lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Design for the non-axially symmetric lens. The upper and lower figures indicate the cross-sectional views in the X and Y directions, respectively (See Media 1 for the 3D design). C-scan image (b) of the grid pattern mask, OPLD image (c) of the flat metal mirror, and B-scan images ((d) and (e)) of the flat metal mirror on the X and Y axes, respectively, obtained using the non-axially symmetric lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

C-scan image of the flat metal mirror covering half of the C-scan area. The black line shows the C-scan data along the Y axis, whose derivative is indicated by the yellow line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic design for the GFRP sample. The blue squares represent PTFE inclusions and the green and red rectangles represent delaminations. The depths at which the defects lie are indicated in the design. The numbers are presented in millimeters. (b) and (c) C-scan images of the GFRP sample obtained using the axially and non-axially symmetric lenses, respectively. (d) and (e) 3D tomographic images of the GFRP sample obtained using the axially and non-axially symmetric lenses, respectively (Media 2 and Media 3).

Metrics