Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time the integration of a superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer and a quantum cascade laser (QCL) on the same 4-K stage of a single cryostat, which is of particular interest for terahertz (THz) HEB/QCL integrated heterodyne receivers for practical applications. Two key issues are addressed. Firstly, a low power consumption QCL is adopted for preventing its heat dissipation from destroying the HEB’s superconductivity. Secondly, a simple spherical lens located on the same 4-K stage is introduced to optimize the coupling between the HEB and the QCL, which has relatively limited output power owing to low input direct current (DC) power. Note that simulation techniques are used to design the HEB/QCL integrated heterodyne receiver to avoid the need for mechanical tuning. The integrated HEB/QCL receiver shows an uncorrected noise temperature of 1500 K at 2.7 THz, which is better than the performance of the same receiver with all the components not integrated.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).
  2. W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S.

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bansal, T.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

Barends, R.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belarouci, A.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cui, M.

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S.

Elant’ev, A. I.

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Faist, J.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filloux, P.

Finkel, M.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fowler, D.

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, J. R.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gershenzon, E. M.

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Gogidze, I. G.

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Gol’tsman, G.

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Goltsman, G.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gusev, Y. P.

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Hajenius, M.

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Halioua, Y.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hayton, D. J.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hovenier, J. N.

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hubers, H. W.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hübers, H. W.

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Il’in, K. S.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Isac, N.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kao, T. Y.

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karasik, B. S.

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Kaurova, N.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S. P.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khosropanah, P.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klaassen, T. O.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Klapwijk, T. M.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

Kollberg, E. L.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Letartre, X.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. H.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lobastova, A.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mahler, L.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslennikov, S.

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maslennikova, A.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miao, W.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moumdji, S.

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, S. G.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reker, S. F.

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D.

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hajenius, P. Khosropanah, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, D. A. Ritchie, and H. E. Beere, “Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 312–314 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryabchun, S.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semenov, A. D.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Sevin, G.

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, S. C.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

Siegel, M.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, I.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vachtomin, Y.

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vercruyssen, N.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B.

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. S.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, G. Y.

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yngvesson, K. S.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhong, J. Q.

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Tretyakov, S. Ryabchun, M. Finkel, A. Maslennikova, N. Kaurova, A. Lobastova, B. Voronov, and G. Goltsman, “Low noise and wide bandwidth of NbN hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033507 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H. W. Hubers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable Single-Mode Operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Cui, J. N. Hovenier, Y. Ren, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111113 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, S. F. Reker, M. Hajenius, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Y. Vachtomin, S. Maslennikov, S. Antipov, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Direct detection effect in small volume hot electron bolometer mixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Sevin, D. Fowler, G. Xu, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Continuous-wave operation of 2.7 THz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 46(22), 1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz Heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Supercond. (1)

E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, I. G. Gogidze, Y. P. Gusev, A. I. Elant’ev, B. S. Karasik, and A. D. Semenov, “Millimeter and submillimeter range mixer based on electron heating of superconducting films in the resistive state,” Sov. Phys. Supercond. 3, 1582 (1990).

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Zhang, W. Miao, J. Q. Zhong, S. C. Shi, D. J. Hayton, N. Vercruyssen, J. R. Gao, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 085013 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of the 2.7 THz HEB/QCL integrated heterodyne receiver. The inset shows a photo inside the 4-K cryostat.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured spectrum of the surface-emitting QCL biased at 268 mA. The inset shows a schematic diagram (Upper) and a SEM image (Lower) of the 2.7 THz surface-emitting QCL with a GPH resonator, in which the widths Wi of the opening slits on the top electrode of the QCL increase from the center to the end.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Far-field beam profiles of the surface-emitting QCL. (a) Schematic diagram defining the scanning angles used in beam profile measurements and calculations. (b) Calculated far-field beam profile of the surface-emitting QCL itself. Note: the side lobes in the regions where θy is beyond ± 40 degree were not experimentally observed. The deviation may be caused by the simplified approximation used in our simulation. (c) Calculated beam profile of the 2.7 THz surface-emitting QCL after a HDPE spherical lens at the position of the superconducting HEB mixer. (d) Measured beam profile of the 2.7 THz surface-emitting QCL after the HDPE spherical lens.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Current-voltage curves of an NbN superconducting HEB mixer with and without radiation from the 2.7 THz surface emitting QCL. The inset shows the SEM micrograph of a log-spiral antenna coupled superconducting HEB mixer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured receiver output powers (responding to the hot and cold load) and the resulting receiver noise temperature as a function of the DC bias voltage at the optimal LO power.

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