Abstract

We present state-of-the-art high resolution transmission gratings, applicable for spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and the soft X-ray (SRX) wavelength range, fabricated with a novel process using ultraviolet based nano imprint lithography (UV-NIL). Free-standing, high-line-density gratings with up to 10,000 lines per mm and various space-to-period ratios were fabricated. An optical characterization of the gratings was carried out in the range from 17 to 34 nm wavelength using high-harmonic generation in a capillary waveguide filled with Ne, and around 13.5 nm wavelength (from 10 to 17 nm) using a Xenon discharge plasma.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Efficient high-order diffraction of extreme-ultraviolet light and soft x-rays by nanostructured volume gratings

D. Hambach, G. Schneider, and E. M. Gullikson
Opt. Lett. 26(15) 1200-1202 (2001)

High-efficiency x-ray gratings with asymmetric-cut multilayers

Saša Bajt, Henry N. Chapman, Andrew Aquila, and Eric Gullikson
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(3) 216-230 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV LITHOGRAPHY Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. Bakshi, EUV Sources for Lithography (Society of Photo Optical, 2006).
  4. J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-Electron Lasers: New avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 635–660 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. J. Word, I. Adesida, and P. R. Berger, “Nanometer-period gratings in hydrogen silsesquioxane fabricated by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), L12–L15 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. R. McMullin, D. L. Judge, C. Tarrio, R. E. Vest, and F. Hanser, “Extreme-ultraviolet efficiency measurements of freestanding transmission gratings,” Appl. Opt. 43(19), 3797–3801 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. W. Schnopper, L. P. Van Speybroeck, J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, E. Källne, R. Z. Bachrach, J. Dijkstra, and L. Lantward, “Diffraction Grating Transmission Efficiencies for Xuv and Soft X Rays,” Appl. Opt. 16(4), 1088–1091 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), xxvii, 808 p.
  13. The Center for X-Ray Optics website: [ www.cxro.lbl.gov ].
  14. S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook 6th ed. (Newport Corporation), Chap. 8.
  16. C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. RSoft DiffractMOD, “RSoft Design Group.” http://www.rsoftdesign.com .
  20. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, D. G. Stearns, M. Kühne, and P. Müller, “Demonstration of Guided-Wave Phenomena at Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft-X-Ray Wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 13(4), 267–269 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Reichardt and F. Schafers, “Laminar versus trapezoidal grating profiles: AFM-measurements and efficiency simulations,” Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation 3150, 121–129 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(4), 950–956 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. N. B. D. M. V. Ammosov and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 64(6), 1191 (1986).
  27. E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-Electron Lasers: New avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 635–660 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV LITHOGRAPHY Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. R. McMullin, D. L. Judge, C. Tarrio, R. E. Vest, and F. Hanser, “Extreme-ultraviolet efficiency measurements of freestanding transmission gratings,” Appl. Opt. 43(19), 3797–3801 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. J. Word, I. Adesida, and P. R. Berger, “Nanometer-period gratings in hydrogen silsesquioxane fabricated by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), L12–L15 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(4), 950–956 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Reichardt and F. Schafers, “Laminar versus trapezoidal grating profiles: AFM-measurements and efficiency simulations,” Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation 3150, 121–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

N. B. D. M. V. Ammosov and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 64(6), 1191 (1986).

1977 (1)

Adesida, I.

M. J. Word, I. Adesida, and P. R. Berger, “Nanometer-period gratings in hydrogen silsesquioxane fabricated by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), L12–L15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

Ammosov, N. B. D. M. V.

N. B. D. M. V. Ammosov and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 64(6), 1191 (1986).

Arora, V.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bachrach, R. Z.

Backus, S.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banine, V.

E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, J. M.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Berger, P. R.

M. J. Word, I. Adesida, and P. R. Berger, “Nanometer-period gratings in hydrogen silsesquioxane fabricated by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), L12–L15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bouhal, A.

Breger, P.

Budil, K. S.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Callcott, T. A.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlisle, J. A.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carter, J. M.

T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ceglio, N. M.

Chenais-Popovics, C.

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Constantinescu, R. C.

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. E.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

de Bruijn, R.

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Delvaille, J. P.

Desaute, P.

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dewey, D.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dijkstra, J.

Ditmire, T.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dwivedi, B. N.

K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ederer, D. L.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Epstein, A.

Evans, R.

Fedin, D. A.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feldman, U.

K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
[Crossref]

Flanagan, K. A.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, A.

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Graessle, D. E.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Greiner, V.

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

Gupta, P. D.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hanser, F.

Harned, N.

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV LITHOGRAPHY Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hawryluk, A. M.

Henschel, W.

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Himpsel, F. J.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hudson, E. A.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, J. J.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Judge, D. L.

Källne, E.

Kapteyn, H. C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kieft, E. R.

E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kooijman, G.

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koshelev, K.

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krainov, V. P.

N. B. D. M. V. Ammosov and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 64(6), 1191 (1986).

Kroesen, G. M. W.

E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kühne, M.

Kumbhare, S. R.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lantward, L.

Larsson, J.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemme, M.

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lhuillier, A.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Markert, T. H.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Marsch, E.

K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
[Crossref]

McMullin, D. R.

Merdji, H.

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Missalla, T.

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-Electron Lasers: New avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 635–660 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

Müller, P.

Murnane, M. M.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Naik, P. A.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nelson, C. S.

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Perera, R. C. C.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Persson, A.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichardt, G.

G. Reichardt and F. Schafers, “Laminar versus trapezoidal grating profiles: AFM-measurements and efficiency simulations,” Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation 3150, 121–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rudenko, A.

J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-Electron Lasers: New avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 635–660 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rupasov, A. A.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sailaja, S.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Salieres, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savas, T. A.

T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schafers, F.

G. Reichardt and F. Schafers, “Laminar versus trapezoidal grating profiles: AFM-measurements and efficiency simulations,” Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation 3150, 121–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schattenburg, M. L.

T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schnopper, H. W.

Shikanov, A. S.

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shirley, E. L.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, H. I.

T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
[Crossref]

Starczewski, T.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stearns, D. G.

Svanberg, S.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarrio, C.

Terminello, L. J.

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Troussel, P.

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, J.

J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-Electron Lasers: New avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 635–660 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Vest, R. E.

von der Linde, D.

Vratzov, B.

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wagner, C.

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV LITHOGRAPHY Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wahlström, C. G.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilhelm, K.

K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
[Crossref]

Word, M. J.

M. J. Word, I. Adesida, and P. R. Berger, “Nanometer-period gratings in hydrogen silsesquioxane fabricated by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), L12–L15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-Electron Lasers: New avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 635–660 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi (1)

T. H. Markert, D. Dewey, J. E. Davis, K. A. Flanagan, D. E. Graessle, J. M. Bauer, and C. S. Nelson, “Modeling the diffraction efficiencies of the AXAF high energy transmission gratings,” Euv, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy Vi 2518, 424–437 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation (1)

G. Reichardt and F. Schafers, “Laminar versus trapezoidal grating profiles: AFM-measurements and efficiency simulations,” Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation 3150, 121–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. (1)

R. de Bruijn, K. Koshelev, G. Kooijman, E. S. Toma, and F. Bijkerk, “Absorption of EUV in laser plasmas generated on xenon gas jets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 81(1–4), 97–105 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

M. J. Word, I. Adesida, and P. R. Berger, “Nanometer-period gratings in hydrogen silsesquioxane fabricated by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), L12–L15 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. A. Savas, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, “Large-area achromatic interferometric lithography for 100 nm period gratings and grids,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4167–4170 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Vratzov, A. Fuchs, M. Lemme, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Large scale ultraviolet-based nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2760–2764 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Sailaja, V. Arora, S. R. Kumbhare, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, D. A. Fedin, A. A. Rupasov, and A. S. Shikanov, “A simple XUV transmission grating spectrograph with sub-angstrom resolution for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(9), 1462–1468 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV LITHOGRAPHY Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Desaute, H. Merdji, V. Greiner, T. Missalla, C. Chenais-Popovics, and P. Troussel, “Characterization of a high resolution transmission grating,” Opt. Commun. 173(1–6), 37–43 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with an Intense Short-Pulse Laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

E. R. Kieft, J. J. A. M. van der Mullen, G. M. W. Kroesen, and V. Banine, “Time-resolved pinhole camera imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry on a hollow cathode discharge in xenon,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(5), 056403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. A. Carlisle, E. L. Shirley, E. A. Hudson, L. J. Terminello, T. A. Callcott, J. J. Jia, D. L. Ederer, R. C. C. Perera, and F. J. Himpsel, “Probing the Graphite band structure with resonant soft-X-Ray fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(7), 1234–1237 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr (1)

N. B. D. M. V. Ammosov and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 64(6), 1191 (1986).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

K. Wilhelm, B. N. Dwivedi, E. Marsch, and U. Feldman, “Observations of the sun at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Part I: Concepts and instrumentation,” Space Sci. Rev. 111(3/4), 415–480 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. Lhuillier, “High-Order Harmonic-Generation in Rare-Gases - a New Source in Photoionization Spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. D Atom. Mol. Cl. 34(2), 107–110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook 6th ed. (Newport Corporation), Chap. 8.

RSoft DiffractMOD, “RSoft Design Group.” http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

V. Bakshi, EUV Sources for Lithography (Society of Photo Optical, 2006).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980), xxvii, 808 p.

The Center for X-Ray Optics website: [ www.cxro.lbl.gov ].

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Transmission grating spectrometer setup, (b) enlarged view of a transmission grating with a density of 10,000 lines mm−1, (c) definition of the grating parameters d (period), a (space) and b (line width)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated spectral variation of the first order diffraction efficiency for a symmetric (μ = 0.5) grating with 200-nm thick Si3N4 lines (red curve) and the same grating with an extra 70 nm Au layer and an extra 12 nm Cr layer deposited on the lines (black curve).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Process flow for fabrication of the free-standing gratings: (a) deposition of Si3N4 and imprint resists on a Si wafer, (b) UV-Nano Imprint Lithography (UV-NIL) for high resolution pattern definition, (c) planarization and etch back of the top layer by Reactive Ion Etching (RIE), (d) pattern transfer down to the Si3N4 by RIE with excellent CD control and a small undercut for a lift-off process, (e) deposition of an Au absorber layer and Cr etch mask by evaporation, (f) lift-off to form the top absorber layer and etch mask, (g) back side optical lithography and subsequent patterning of Si3N4 by RIE and Si by wet etching, (h) grating definition by RIE etch into Si3N4.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scanning electron microscopy image for the 10,000 lines mm−1 grating G3 (design for μ = 50/50).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fabricated average space-to-period ratios, μ ¯ , determined from the SEM images for the gratings G1, G2/G3/G4 and G5 versus the intended design ratios, μ, of 0.45, 0.5 and 0.55. The full length of the error bars is taken as 2σ, where σ is the standard deviation measured in the SEM images for each grating. The dashed line indicates the ideal case of zero fabrication error.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Table-top XUV source based on high harmonic generation (HHG) with a Ne-filled capillary.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The high harmonic spectrum measured with a 10,000 lines mm−1 grating (G3). (b) Ratio of the second to first order diffraction efficiency measured at the 39th harmonic order (λ = 20 nm) for five different gratings (black circles), second to first order diffraction efficiency calculated for a one-dimensional grating structure using Eq. (4) (dashed line) and Eq. (7) (dotted line), and for a two-dimensional grating, i.e. taking into account the finite thickness and also layered structure of the grating lines, based on a rigorous coupled wave analysis (solid line).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Xenon discharge plasma spectrum measured with a 10,000 lines mm−1 grating. The inset in Fig. 8 indicates the decomposition of the peaks corresponding to the 4d-5p transition features for Xenon.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dsinα=mλ,
λ max = d m sin[ tan 1 ( D R )],
η m = [ sin(mπ a d ) mπ ] 2 .
T m/1 = η m η 1 = ( sin( mπ a d ) msin(π a d ) ) 2 .
η m ( λ )= ( sin( mπμ ) mπ ) 2 [ 1+exp( 4π n 2 z 0 λ )2exp( 2π n 2 z 0 λ )cos( 2π( n 1 1 ) z 0 λ ) ].
Δ λ th = { [ d m ( ΔS+A R s )+ d m ( K R ) ] 2 + ( λd mA ) 2 } 1/2 ,
T 2 1 ( μ ¯ )= 0 1 ( 1 σ 2π e ( μ μ ¯ ) 2 σ 2 ) ( sin( 2πμ ) 2sin(πμ) ) 2 dμ,

Metrics