Abstract

Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO2 film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO2 exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Loh and S. R. Leone, “Capturing ultrafast quantum dynamics with femtosecond and attosecond x-ray core-level absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(2), 292–302 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bencivenga, S. Baroni, C. Carbone, M. Chergui, M. B. Danailov, G. D. Ninno, M. Kiskinova, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, and C. Masciovecchio, “Nanoscale dynamics by short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123023 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Jeong, N. Aetukuri, T. Graf, T. D. Schladt, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Suppression of metal-insulator transition in VO2 by electric field-induced oxygen vacancy formation,” Science 339(6126), 1402–1405 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sistrunk, J. Grilj, B. K. McFarland, J. Rohlén, A. Aguilar, and M. Gühr, “Resonant photoemission at the iron M-edge of Fe(CO)5.,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Farrell, B. K. McFarland, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “Calibration of a high harmonic spectrometer by laser induced plasma emission,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15134–15144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and K. A. Nelson, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 286–288 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Ultra-broadband femtosecond measurements of the photo-induced phase transition in VO2: from the mid-IR to the hard x-rays,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75, 011004 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. H. Torchinsky, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal films with extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Martins, K. Godehusen, T. Richter, P. Wernet, and P. Zimmermann, “Open shells and multi-electron interactions: core level photoionization of the 3d metal atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(5), R79–R125 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386(1-3), 184–189 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. A. Rogers, A. A. Maznev, M. J. Banet, and K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and characterization of acoustic waves in thin films: fundamentals and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 117–157 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. F. Crimmins, A. A. Maznev, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurements of picosecond acoustic pulses in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

G. D. Goodno, G. Dadusc, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast heterodyne-detected transient-grating spectroscopy using diffractive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(6), 1791 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Imada, A. Fujimori, and Y. Tokura, “Metal-insulator transitions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70(4), 1039–1263 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Leroux, G. Nihoul, and G. Van Tendeloo, “From VO2(B) to VO2(R): theoretical structures of VO2 polymorphs and in situ electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57(9), 5111–5121 (1998).

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, and M. D. Fayer, “Laser-induced ultrasonics: A dynamic holographic approach to the measurement of weak absorptions, optoelastic constants acoustic attenuation,” Chem. Phys. 72(3), 371–379 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

D. Kucharczyk and T. Niklewski, “Accurate x-ray determination of the lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficients of VO2 near the transition temperature,” J. Appl. Cryst. 12(4), 370–373 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. Salcedo, A. Siegman, D. Dlott, and M. Fayer, “Dynamics of energy transport in molecular crystals: the picosecond transient-grating method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 131–134 (1978).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Guggenheim, “Electronic properties of VO2 near the semiconductor-metal transition,” Phys. Rev. 185(3), 1022–1033 (1969).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

F. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[Crossref]

Abramavicius, D.

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, R.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aeschlimann, M.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aetukuri, N.

J. Jeong, N. Aetukuri, T. Graf, T. D. Schladt, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Suppression of metal-insulator transition in VO2 by electric field-induced oxygen vacancy formation,” Science 339(6126), 1402–1405 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aetukuri, N. B.

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aguilar, A.

E. Sistrunk, J. Grilj, B. K. McFarland, J. Rohlén, A. Aguilar, and M. Gühr, “Resonant photoemission at the iron M-edge of Fe(CO)5.,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. H.

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arenholz, E.

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banet, M. J.

J. A. Rogers, A. A. Maznev, M. J. Banet, and K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and characterization of acoustic waves in thin films: fundamentals and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 117–157 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baroni, S.

F. Bencivenga, S. Baroni, C. Carbone, M. Chergui, M. B. Danailov, G. D. Ninno, M. Kiskinova, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, and C. Masciovecchio, “Nanoscale dynamics by short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baum, P.

P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bencivenga, F.

F. Bencivenga, S. Baroni, C. Carbone, M. Chergui, M. B. Danailov, G. D. Ninno, M. Kiskinova, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, and C. Masciovecchio, “Nanoscale dynamics by short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Guggenheim, “Electronic properties of VO2 near the semiconductor-metal transition,” Phys. Rev. 185(3), 1022–1033 (1969).
[Crossref]

Bovensiepen, U.

A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Bulgakova, N. M.

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Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
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Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
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C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
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N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
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A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
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Kieffer, J. C.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
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J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
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Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
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A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
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Liu, C.

J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
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Z.-H. Loh and S. R. Leone, “Capturing ultrafast quantum dynamics with femtosecond and attosecond x-ray core-level absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(2), 292–302 (2013).
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Lopez, R.

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
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J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
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M. Martins, K. Godehusen, T. Richter, P. Wernet, and P. Zimmermann, “Open shells and multi-electron interactions: core level photoionization of the 3d metal atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(5), R79–R125 (2006).
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Masciovecchio, C.

F. Bencivenga, S. Baroni, C. Carbone, M. Chergui, M. B. Danailov, G. D. Ninno, M. Kiskinova, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, and C. Masciovecchio, “Nanoscale dynamics by short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123023 (2013).
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C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
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J. A. Rogers, A. A. Maznev, M. J. Banet, and K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and characterization of acoustic waves in thin films: fundamentals and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 117–157 (2000).
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T. F. Crimmins, A. A. Maznev, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurements of picosecond acoustic pulses in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1344 (1999).
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McFarland, B. K.

E. Sistrunk, J. Grilj, B. K. McFarland, J. Rohlén, A. Aguilar, and M. Gühr, “Resonant photoemission at the iron M-edge of Fe(CO)5.,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164318 (2013).
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M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386(1-3), 184–189 (2004).
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Murnane, M. M.

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
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C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. H. Torchinsky, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal films with extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nardi, D.

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
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Nelson, K. A.

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
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R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and K. A. Nelson, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 286–288 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. H. Torchinsky, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal films with extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Rogers, A. A. Maznev, M. J. Banet, and K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and characterization of acoustic waves in thin films: fundamentals and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 117–157 (2000).
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T. F. Crimmins, A. A. Maznev, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurements of picosecond acoustic pulses in metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1344 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, and M. D. Fayer, “Laser-induced ultrasonics: A dynamic holographic approach to the measurement of weak absorptions, optoelastic constants acoustic attenuation,” Chem. Phys. 72(3), 371–379 (1982).
[Crossref]

Nembach, H.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
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C. Leroux, G. Nihoul, and G. Van Tendeloo, “From VO2(B) to VO2(R): theoretical structures of VO2 polymorphs and in situ electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57(9), 5111–5121 (1998).

Niklewski, T.

D. Kucharczyk and T. Niklewski, “Accurate x-ray determination of the lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficients of VO2 near the transition temperature,” J. Appl. Cryst. 12(4), 370–373 (1979).
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Ogilvie, J. P.

M. L. Cowan, J. P. Ogilvie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386(1-3), 184–189 (2004).
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Ohldag, H.

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
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Parkin, S. S. P.

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
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J. Jeong, N. Aetukuri, T. Graf, T. D. Schladt, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Suppression of metal-insulator transition in VO2 by electric field-induced oxygen vacancy formation,” Science 339(6126), 1402–1405 (2013).
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Prima-Garcia, H.

A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raimondi, L.

F. Bencivenga, S. Baroni, C. Carbone, M. Chergui, M. B. Danailov, G. D. Ninno, M. Kiskinova, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, and C. Masciovecchio, “Nanoscale dynamics by short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramanathan, S.

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reid, A. H.

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
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Richter, T.

M. Martins, K. Godehusen, T. Richter, P. Wernet, and P. Zimmermann, “Open shells and multi-electron interactions: core level photoionization of the 3d metal atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(5), R79–R125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rini, M.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Ultra-broadband femtosecond measurements of the photo-induced phase transition in VO2: from the mid-IR to the hard x-rays,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75, 011004 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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Roche, K. P.

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, A. A. Maznev, M. J. Banet, and K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and characterization of acoustic waves in thin films: fundamentals and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 117–157 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rohlén, J.

E. Sistrunk, J. Grilj, B. K. McFarland, J. Rohlén, A. Aguilar, and M. Gühr, “Resonant photoemission at the iron M-edge of Fe(CO)5.,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salcedo, J.

J. Salcedo, A. Siegman, D. Dlott, and M. Fayer, “Dynamics of energy transport in molecular crystals: the picosecond transient-grating method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 131–134 (1978).
[Crossref]

Samant, M. G.

J. Jeong, N. Aetukuri, T. Graf, T. D. Schladt, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Suppression of metal-insulator transition in VO2 by electric field-induced oxygen vacancy formation,” Science 339(6126), 1402–1405 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Aetukuri, A. X. Gray, M. Drouard, M. Cossale, L. Gao, A. H. Reid, R. Kukreja, H. Ohldag, C. A. Jenkins, E. Arenholz, K. P. Roche, H. A. Dürr, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Control of the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide by modifying orbital occupancy,” Nat. Phys. 9(10), 661–666 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schladt, T. D.

J. Jeong, N. Aetukuri, T. Graf, T. D. Schladt, M. G. Samant, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Suppression of metal-insulator transition in VO2 by electric field-induced oxygen vacancy formation,” Science 339(6126), 1402–1405 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, R.

A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, C. M.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schoenlein, R.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schoenlein, R. W.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Ultra-broadband femtosecond measurements of the photo-induced phase transition in VO2: from the mid-IR to the hard x-rays,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75, 011004 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweigert, I. V.

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, J. M.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegman, A.

J. Salcedo, A. Siegman, D. Dlott, and M. Fayer, “Dynamics of energy transport in molecular crystals: the picosecond transient-grating method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 131–134 (1978).
[Crossref]

Siemens, M.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siemens, M. E.

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and K. A. Nelson, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 286–288 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. H. Torchinsky, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal films with extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Silva, T. J.

C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C. M. Schneider, J. M. Shaw, H. Nembach, and T. J. Silva, “Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sistrunk, E.

E. Sistrunk, J. Grilj, B. K. McFarland, J. Rohlén, A. Aguilar, and M. Gühr, “Resonant photoemission at the iron M-edge of Fe(CO)5.,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164318 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svetina, C.

F. Bencivenga, S. Baroni, C. Carbone, M. Chergui, M. B. Danailov, G. D. Ninno, M. Kiskinova, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, and C. Masciovecchio, “Nanoscale dynamics by short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments,” New J. Phys. 15(12), 123023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tobey, R. I.

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and K. A. Nelson, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 286–288 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. H. Torchinsky, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal films with extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091108 (2006).
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M. Imada, A. Fujimori, and Y. Tokura, “Metal-insulator transitions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70(4), 1039–1263 (1998).
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Torchinsky, D. H.

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. H. Torchinsky, and K. A. Nelson, “Transient grating measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal films with extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Tendeloo, G.

C. Leroux, G. Nihoul, and G. Van Tendeloo, “From VO2(B) to VO2(R): theoretical structures of VO2 polymorphs and in situ electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57(9), 5111–5121 (1998).

Voronine, D. V.

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vura-Weis, J.

J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weber, R.

A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinelt, M.

A. Melnikov, H. Prima-Garcia, M. Lisowski, T. Giessel, R. Weber, R. Schmidt, C. Gahl, N. M. Bulgakova, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Weinelt, “Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of gadolinium studied by magnetic linear dichroism in time-resolved 4f core-level photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 107202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wernet, P.

M. Martins, K. Godehusen, T. Richter, P. Wernet, and P. Zimmermann, “Open shells and multi-electron interactions: core level photoionization of the 3d metal atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(5), R79–R125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-S.

P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

J. Vura-Weis, C.-M. Jiang, C. Liu, H. Gao, J. M. Lucas, F. M. F. de Groot, P. Yang, A. P. Alivisatos, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond M2,3-edge spectroscopy of transition-metal oxides: photoinduced oxidation state change in α-Fe2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3667–3671 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

Q. Li, K. Hoogeboom-Pot, D. Nardi, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. E. Siemens, E. H. Anderson, O. Hellwig, E. Dobisz, B. Gurney, R. Yang, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation and control of ultrashort-wavelength two-dimensional surface acoustic waves at nanoscale interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zewail, A. H.

P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, W.

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, P.

M. Martins, K. Godehusen, T. Richter, P. Wernet, and P. Zimmermann, “Open shells and multi-electron interactions: core level photoionization of the 3d metal atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(5), R79–R125 (2006).
[Crossref]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

S. Mukamel, D. Abramavicius, L. Yang, W. Zhuang, I. V. Schweigert, and D. V. Voronine, “Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to x-rays,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(4), 553–562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. A. Rogers, A. A. Maznev, M. J. Banet, and K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and characterization of acoustic waves in thin films: fundamentals and applications,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 117–157 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transient grating experiment geometry. A transient grating with ~15μm period is created on the VO2 surface by two 800nm beams. High harmonics generated in a high pressure gas cell are refocused using a toroidal mirror. First order diffraction from the sample surface is detected with a CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical first order diffraction signal from VO2. (a) Raw CCD image of 2.5s exposure on CCD camera. (b) Integrated TG spectrum from image in a. The background at short wavelength is due to diffuse scattering around the zero order. Dashed lines indicate the calculated positions of harmonic orders 13-27. (c) Absorption at V M-edge (dashed) corresponding to the 3p-3d transition, calculated from values tabulated in [33].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-dependent transient grating signal as a function of photon energy and temperature. The cold sample (a) at 25°C is in the insulating phase, while the hot sample (b) at 75°C is metallic. A prompt response (marked by an arrow) of the 39 eV scattered light is only present in the cold sample. (c) Simple scheme for resonant probing showing the vanadium 3d level derived d|| as well as the oxygen derived π* bands. The 3p bands are deeper bound and accessible by the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses. The infrared (IR) pump pulse induced a collapse of the VO2 bandgap, shifting the 3p-3d resonance, which is probed by a delayed EUV continuum pulse.

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