Abstract

We developed an ultra-stable and accurately-controllable Michelson interferometer to be used in a deeply unbalanced arm configuration for split-pulse XUV Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order laser harmonics. The implemented active and passive stabilization systems allow one to reach instabilities in the nanometer range over meters of relative optical path differences. Producing precisely delayed pairs of pump pulses will generate XUV harmonic pulses that may significantly improve the achievable spectral resolution and the precision of absolute frequency measurements in the XUV.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. Liontos, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, R. Eramo, S. Kaziannis, A. Pirri, E. Sali, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 832–834 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Morgenweg, I. Barmes, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 10, 30–33 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. For a simple spring mass system, the resonance frequency is νov=(2π)−1k/m, where k is the elastic constant of the spring and m the mass. The expression in the text is found by imposing the equilibrium condition k∆L = mg.
  12. J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Design and evaluation of a simple ultralow vibration vacuum environment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 209–215 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Morgenweg, I. Barmes, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 10, 30–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Design and evaluation of a simple ultralow vibration vacuum environment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 209–215 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alcaraz, C.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barmes, I.

J. Morgenweg, I. Barmes, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 10, 30–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Liontos, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, R. Eramo, S. Kaziannis, A. Pirri, E. Sali, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 832–834 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, S.

I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Liontos, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, R. Eramo, S. Kaziannis, A. Pirri, E. Sali, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 832–834 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corsi, C.

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Liontos, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, R. Eramo, S. Kaziannis, A. Pirri, E. Sali, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 832–834 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, N.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eikema, K. S. E.

J. Morgenweg, I. Barmes, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 10, 30–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eramo, R.

I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Liontos, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, R. Eramo, S. Kaziannis, A. Pirri, E. Sali, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 832–834 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gohle, C.

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ito, K.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Joyeux, D.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kandula, D. Z.

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaziannis, S.

Kessler, E.

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Design and evaluation of a simple ultralow vibration vacuum environment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 209–215 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lagarde, B.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lawall, J.

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Design and evaluation of a simple ultralow vibration vacuum environment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 209–215 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lepere, D.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liontos, I.

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Liontos, C. Corsi, S. Cavalieri, M. Bellini, and R. Eramo, “Split-pulse spectrometer for absolute xuv frequency measurements,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2047–2049 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Liontos, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, R. Eramo, S. Kaziannis, A. Pirri, E. Sali, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey spectroscopy of bound atomic states with extreme-ultraviolet laser harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 35, 832–834 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marlats, J.L.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Materazzi, M.

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morgenweg, J.

J. Morgenweg, I. Barmes, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 10, 30–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nahon, L.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phalippou, D.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pinkert, T. J.

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pirri, A.

Polack, F.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rodier, J.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roudjane, M.

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sali, E.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thissen, R.

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ubachs, W.

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photon. 3, 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. de Oliveira, M. Roudjane, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, J. Rodier, and L. Nahon, “High-resolution broad-bandwidth Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in the XUV range down to 40 nm,” Nat. Photonics 5, 149–153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Morgenweg, I. Barmes, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 10, 30–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Pirri, E. Sali, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, S. Cavalieri, and R. Eramo, “Extreme-ultraviolet Ramsey-type spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043410 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Eramo, M. Bellini, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and S. Cavalieri, “Improving ramsey spectroscopy in the extreme-ultraviolet region with a random-sampling approach,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Eramo, S. Cavalieri, C. Corsi, I. Liontos, and M. Bellini, “Method for high-resolution frequency measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime: Random-sampling Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cavalieri, R. Eramo, M. Materazzi, C. Corsi, and M. Bellini, “Ramsey-type spectroscopy with high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 133002 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Design and evaluation of a simple ultralow vibration vacuum environment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 209–215 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Nahon, C. Alcaraz, J.L. Marlats, B. Lagarde, F. Polack, R. Thissen, D. Lepere, and K. Ito, “Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: a vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1320–1329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

For a simple spring mass system, the resonance frequency is νov=(2π)−1k/m, where k is the elastic constant of the spring and m the mass. The expression in the text is found by imposing the equilibrium condition k∆L = mg.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified scheme of the experimental set-up. PID is a home-made proportional-integral-derivative feedback controller; BS is a 50% beam-splitter; λ/2 and λ/4 are a quarter- and half-waveplates, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Square root of the power spectral density (PSD) of the interferometer optical path difference, measured as a function of the frequency. Red: open-loop (PID OFF) signal; blue: closed-loop (PID ON) signal; gray: equivalent signal corresponding to pure He-Ne intensity fluctuations and electronic noise. The standard deviation of the path difference in the 1.5 Hz–3 KHz frequency range ( σ = P S D ( ν ) d ν ) is 116 pm, 170 pm, and 1.2 pm, for the three cases, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral interference fringes for time-delayed third harmonic pulses. a) CCD image of the monochromator focal plane. (b) Integrated lineout of spectral interference fringes (normalized to the total image counts), superimposed to a sinusoidally modulated Gaussian fit function (two CCD acquisitions, corresponding to the extrema of the series). c) Values of the fitted delays τ for a run of 47 acquisitions, each corresponding to an integration time of 0.5 s (sampling frequency fs=0.5 Hz). The standard deviation is στ =2.2 as on a mean value τ =191.8942 fs. (d) Histogram of the equivalent path differences. ∆τ = 2.2 as corresponds to a path standard deviation of approximately 0.7 nm.

Equations (1)

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| T ( ν ) | = ν o 4 + ν 2 ν o 2 / Q 2 ( ν 2 ν o 2 ) 2 + ν 2 ν o 2 / Q 2 .

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