Abstract

Based on the phase separation effect in the film formation process of Polystyrene and Poly(methyl methacrylate) blend solution, bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with corrugated microcavity was demonstrated. This device exhibited high efficiency, broad spectra and Lambertian angular emission. Compared with the traditional bottom-emitting OLEDs with ITO anode and the planar microcavity OLEDs, about 57% and 41% enhancement for external quantum efficiency was achieved in this corrugated microcavity OLEDs respectively. This improvement can be understood by the scattering effect of the quasi-periodic characteristic of this corrugated microcavity which reduces the optical loss at surface plasmon polariton modes and wave-guided modes. This work provides a simple as well as efficienct method to recover trapped light in OLEDs, which will benefit the low cost fabrication process.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  14. J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Zhao, Z. Wu, S. Ning, S. Liang, D. Wang, and X. Hou, “Random lasing from granular surface of waveguide with blends of PS and PMMA,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16126–16131 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
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  18. B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3673–3685 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. J. Park, Y. D. Kim, H. W. Lee, H. J. Yang, J. Y. Cho, Y. K. Kim, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of OLEDs using Si₃N₄-based optical scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12392–12397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Z. Wu, S. Ning, S. Liang, D. Wang, and X. Hou, “Random lasing from granular surface of waveguide with blends of PS and PMMA,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16126–16131 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Urabe, “The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications,” Information Display 24, 14–17 (2008).

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11044–11051 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Wedge and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3673–3685 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltau, M.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-W.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-Y.

Chen, Q.-D.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.-H.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, J. Y.

Cho, N. S.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J.-H.

Feng, J.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[PubMed]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-H.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y.-H.

Hofmann, S.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hou, X.

X. Zhao, Z. Wu, S. Ning, S. Liang, D. Wang, and X. Hou, “Random lasing from granular surface of waveguide with blends of PS and PMMA,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16126–16131 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S.-C.

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huh, J. W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiao, B.

B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Joo, C. W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, W. M.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. D.

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. K.

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krausch, G.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Lee, H. W.

Lee, J.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, J.-I.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-F.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, S.

Lin, H.-Y.

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-F.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moller, S.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Meskamp, L.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ning, S.

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

Park, S. K.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scholz, R.

Schwab, T.

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, L. H.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J. X.

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J.-H.

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Urabe, T.

T. Urabe, “The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications,” Information Display 24, 14–17 (2008).

Walheim, S.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, S.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J. A. E.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wedge, S.

Wei, M.-K.

Wong, M.

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.-C.

Wu, Z.

Wu, Z. X.

B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, X. W.

B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. J.

Yu, X. M.

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zakhidov, A.

Zhao, X.

Zhu, X. L.

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Mueller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We Want Our Photons Back: Simple Nanostructures for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light Out-Coupling Efficiencies of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Structures and the Effect of Photoluminescence Quantum Yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

B. Jiao, Z. X. Wu, X. W. Yan, and X. Hou, “Influence of the thickness of N,N'-Bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 239–243 (2010).
[Crossref]

Information Display (1)

T. Urabe, “The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications,” Information Display 24, 14–17 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers (1)

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Investigation of Al- and Ag-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxides as hole-injection layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 46(3A), 1033–1036 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. (1)

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 -Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers. 44(Part 1), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. (1)

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic illustration for the fabrication of the PMMA-PS nano-structure. (b)-(e) AFM image of surface morphologies of ITO film (b), PMMA film (c), PS film (d), and PMMA-PS film (e) respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic structure of the OLEDs based on PMMA-PS nano-structure (device A). (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the organic and aluminum layer viewing from the top of this OLEDs. Schematic structures of the two control devices, device B (c) and device C (d),respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Current density-voltage characteristics (a), luminance-current density characteristics (b), current efficiency-current density characteristics (c), and external quantum efficiency (EQE) -current density characteristics(d) of devices A, B, and C, respectively. The insert in (a) is the energy diagram of ITO-based OLEDs and Ag-based OLEDs
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The normalized electroluminescence spectra of device A (solid line), device B (dot line), and device C (dot and dash line) from normal direction respectively. (b) Enhancement ratio of intensity by corrugated structure as a function of wavelength. (c) 2D AFM image of PMMA-PS film, inset image is the FFT pattern. (d) The power spectrum from FTT as a function of grating period.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)-(d) FEM simulated steady-state Ez field intensity distribution of TE mode for planar device at source wavelength of 470 nm (a) and 650 nm (c), for corrugated device with grating period of 600 nm at wavelength of 470 nm (b) and 650 nm (d), respectively. (e)-(h) FEM simulated steady-state Hz field intensity distribution of TM mode for planar device at wavelength of 470 nm (e) and 650 nm (g), for corrugated device with grating period of 600 nm at wavelength of 470 nm (f) and 650 nm (h), respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Electroluminescence spectra of the device C with planar microcavity (a) and device A with corrugated microcavity (b) at viewing angles of 0°,30°and 60°respectively.The electroluminescence of device B with ITO as anode at viewing angles of 0°is also shown as an reference in (a) and (b). Emission pattern of devices A, B, and C are also exhibited (normalized to the intensity at 0°), and the Lambertian pattern is used as reference (c).

Equations (1)

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k 0 sinθ= k wg ±nG

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