Abstract

In this work, InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) possessing varied quantum well (QW) numbers were systematically investigated both numerically and experimentally. The numerical computations show that with the increased QW number, a reduced electron leakage can be achieved and hence the efficiency droop can be reduced when a constant Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) nonradiative recombination lifetime is used for all the samples. However, the experimental results indicate that, though the efficiency droop is suppressed, the LED optical power is first improved and then degraded with the increasing QW number. The analysis of the measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) with the increasing current revealed that an increasingly dominant SRH nonradiative recombination is induced with more epitaxial QWs, which can be related to the defect generation due to the strain relaxation, especially when the effective thickness exceeds the critical thickness. These observations were further supported by the carrier lifetime measurement using a pico-second time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) system, which allowed for a revised numerical modeling with the different SRH lifetimes considered. This work provides useful guidelines on choosing the critical QW number when designing LED structures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  4. X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.-Y. Chang, Y.-K. Kuo, and M.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of barrier material and quantum-well number for InGaN/(In)GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(3), 729–734 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y.-K. Kuo, S.-H. Yen, and J.-R. Chen, “Numerical simulation of AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6368, 636812 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. M.-F. Huang and T.-H. Lu, “Optimization of the active-Layer structure for the deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 820–826 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).
  15. M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. W. Matthews and A. E. Blakeslee, “Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations,” J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118–125 (1974).
  26. Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Investigation of Efficiency Droop Behaviors of InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs With Various Well Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Chang, Y.-K. Kuo, and M.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of barrier material and quantum-well number for InGaN/(In)GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(3), 729–734 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Lee, “Reduction in the Efficiency-Droop Effect of InGaN Green Light-Emitting Diodes Using Gradual Quantum Wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1506–1508 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Investigation of Efficiency Droop Behaviors of InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs With Various Well Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y.-K. Kuo, S.-H. Yen, and J.-R. Chen, “Numerical simulation of AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6368, 636812 (2006).
[Crossref]

M.-F. Huang and T.-H. Lu, “Optimization of the active-Layer structure for the deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 820–826 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. W. Matthews and A. E. Blakeslee, “Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations,” J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118–125 (1974).

Avrutin, V.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blakeslee, A. E.

J. W. Matthews and A. E. Blakeslee, “Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations,” J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118–125 (1974).

Chang, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Chang, Y.-K. Kuo, and M.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of barrier material and quantum-well number for InGaN/(In)GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(3), 729–734 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Lee, “Reduction in the Efficiency-Droop Effect of InGaN Green Light-Emitting Diodes Using Gradual Quantum Wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1506–1508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. F.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-R.

Y.-K. Kuo, S.-H. Yen, and J.-R. Chen, “Numerical simulation of AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6368, 636812 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L. W.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Costa, P. M. F. J.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dikme, Y.

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Erdem, T.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evans, K. R.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hahn, B.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hasanov, N.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holec, D.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.-F.

M.-F. Huang and T.-H. Lu, “Optimization of the active-Layer structure for the deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 820–826 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-R.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Investigation of Efficiency Droop Behaviors of InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs With Various Well Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, C. J.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Ju, Z. G.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kappers, M. J.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-H.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koslow, I.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-K.

J.-Y. Chang, Y.-K. Kuo, and M.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of barrier material and quantum-well number for InGaN/(In)GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(3), 729–734 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kuo, S.-H. Yen, and J.-R. Chen, “Numerical simulation of AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6368, 636812 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kyaw, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyaw, Z. B.

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.-H.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Investigation of Efficiency Droop Behaviors of InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs With Various Well Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Lee, “Reduction in the Efficiency-Droop Effect of InGaN Green Light-Emitting Diodes Using Gradual Quantum Wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1506–1508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Lee, “Reduction in the Efficiency-Droop Effect of InGaN Green Light-Emitting Diodes Using Gradual Quantum Wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1506–1508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leyer, M.

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Investigation of Efficiency Droop Behaviors of InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs With Various Well Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Q.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liaw, U. H.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. H.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S. P.

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.-H.

M.-F. Huang and T.-H. Lu, “Optimization of the active-Layer structure for the deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 820–826 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matthews, J. W.

J. W. Matthews and A. E. Blakeslee, “Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations,” J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118–125 (1974).

Matulionis, A.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meissner, C.

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mulholland, G.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, D.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozgur, U.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, C. C.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paskova, T.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pristovsek, M.

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shan, Q.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Y.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shuji, N.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Simon Li, Z. M.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sonoda, J.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stellmach, J.

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sugahara, T.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tiam Tan, S.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-C.

J.-Y. Chang, Y.-K. Kuo, and M.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of barrier material and quantum-well number for InGaN/(In)GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(3), 729–734 (2011).
[Crossref]

Volkan Demir, H.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Wang, J.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wei Sun, X.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Xia, C. S.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yen, S.-H.

Y.-K. Kuo, S.-H. Yen, and J.-R. Chen, “Numerical simulation of AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6368, 636812 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. L.

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. P.

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. H.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B. B.

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. B. Kyaw, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Lu, Y. P. Zhang, B. B. Zhu, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved hole distribution in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded thickness quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 243504 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Xia, Z. M. Simon Li, Z. Q. Li, Y. Sheng, Z. H. Zhang, W. Lu, and L. W. Cheng, “Optimal number of quantum wells for blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop-causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. G. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, Y. Zhao, S. P. DenBaars, N. Shuji, and H. V. Demir, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335–336 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M.-F. Huang and T.-H. Lu, “Optimization of the active-Layer structure for the deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 820–826 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (2)

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Investigation of Efficiency Droop Behaviors of InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well LEDs With Various Well Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, Y. K. Su, J. F. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well blue and green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8(2), 278–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Lee, “Reduction in the Efficiency-Droop Effect of InGaN Green Light-Emitting Diodes Using Gradual Quantum Wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1506–1508 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

M. Leyer, J. Stellmach, C. Meissner, M. Pristovsek, and M. Kneissl, “The critical thickness of InGaN on (0001)GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 4913–4915 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. W. Matthews and A. E. Blakeslee, “Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations,” J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118–125 (1974).

J. Display Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

J.-Y. Chang, Y.-K. Kuo, and M.-C. Tsai, “Correlation of barrier material and quantum-well number for InGaN/(In)GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(3), 729–734 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y.-K. Kuo, S.-H. Yen, and J.-R. Chen, “Numerical simulation of AlInGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6368, 636812 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computed EQE and output power as a function of current density for LEDs with varying QW numbers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Computed electron concentration in the last three QWs and in the p-GaN region for the LED samples at the current density of 50 A/cm2, (b) computed hole concentration in the last three QWs near the p-GaN at the current density of 50 A/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental optical output power under increasing drive current density for the LEDs having 3, 5, 8 and 11 QWs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental EQE versus injection current density for LED with varying QW numbers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TRPL measurement for different LED devices with varied QW numbers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Re-computed EQE with increasing defect concentration as a function of operation current density.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IQE=B n 2 /(An+B n 2 +C n 3 )= B A n +B+Cn .
d(IQE) dn =0.

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