Abstract

A precise correlated color temperature (CCT) tuning method for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been developed and is demonstrated in this article. By combining LEDs and a liquid crystal (LC) cell, a light source with continuous CCT variation along a straight track on the chromaticity diagram is achieved. Moreover, the manner of CCT variation can be modulated by choosing appropriate LEDs and phosphors to yield a variation going from 3800 K to 6100 K with the track near the black-body locus. By adapting various developed LC technologies for diverse demands, the performance and applications of LEDs can be greatly improved.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Zhang, Y. Chen, and G. X. He, “Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index,” Sci. World J. 2014, 897960 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Katrašnik, F. Pernuš, and B. Likar, “A method for characterizing illumination systems for hyperspectral imaging,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4841–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

I. T. Kim, A. S. Choi, and J. W. Jeong, “Precise control of a correlated color temperature tunable luminaire for a suitable luminous environment,” Build. Environ. 57, 302–312 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. Chen, K. J. Chen, S. F. Hu, and S. Liu, “Combinatorial chemistry approach to searching phosphors for white light-emitting diodes in (Gd-Y-Bi-Eu)VO4 quaternary system,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3677–3685 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. S. Mayhoub, D. J. Carter, and T. M. Chung, “Towards hybrid lighting systems: A review,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(1), 51–71 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100203 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (2)

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, “Breakthroughs in improving crystal quality of GaN and invention of the p-n junction blue-light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 9001–9010 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12: Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. Nakamura, “Present performance of InGaN-based blue/green/yellow LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3002, 26–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(7A), L838–L839 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

N. Holonyak and S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (Visible) light emission from Ga(As1-xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1(4), 82–83 (1962).
[Crossref]

Acuña, P.

Akasaki, I.

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, “Breakthroughs in improving crystal quality of GaN and invention of the p-n junction blue-light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 9001–9010 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, “Breakthroughs in improving crystal quality of GaN and invention of the p-n junction blue-light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 9001–9010 (2006).
[Crossref]

Audenaert, J.

Barone, J.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bevacqua, S. F.

N. Holonyak and S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (Visible) light emission from Ga(As1-xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1(4), 82–83 (1962).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, R. N.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carter, D. J.

M. S. Mayhoub, D. J. Carter, and T. M. Chung, “Towards hybrid lighting systems: A review,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(1), 51–71 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chabra, V.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

L. Chen, K. J. Chen, S. F. Hu, and S. Liu, “Combinatorial chemistry approach to searching phosphors for white light-emitting diodes in (Gd-Y-Bi-Eu)VO4 quaternary system,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3677–3685 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, K. J. Chen, S. F. Hu, and S. Liu, “Combinatorial chemistry approach to searching phosphors for white light-emitting diodes in (Gd-Y-Bi-Eu)VO4 quaternary system,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3677–3685 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

M. H. Zhang, Y. Chen, and G. X. He, “Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index,” Sci. World J. 2014, 897960 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chhabra, V.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cho, J. H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choi, A. S.

I. T. Kim, A. S. Choi, and J. W. Jeong, “Precise control of a correlated color temperature tunable luminaire for a suitable luminous environment,” Build. Environ. 57, 302–312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. M.

M. S. Mayhoub, D. J. Carter, and T. M. Chung, “Towards hybrid lighting systems: A review,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(1), 51–71 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dal Lago, M.

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

Do, Y. R.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dorman, D.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ekimov, A.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

He, G. X.

M. H. Zhang, Y. Chen, and G. X. He, “Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index,” Sci. World J. 2014, 897960 (2014).
[PubMed]

Herko, S.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hirosaki, N.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holonyak, N.

N. Holonyak and S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (Visible) light emission from Ga(As1-xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1(4), 82–83 (1962).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, H. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, S. F.

L. Chen, K. J. Chen, S. F. Hu, and S. Liu, “Combinatorial chemistry approach to searching phosphors for white light-emitting diodes in (Gd-Y-Bi-Eu)VO4 quaternary system,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3677–3685 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huh, Y. D.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[Crossref]

Izuno, K.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J. W.

I. T. Kim, A. S. Choi, and J. W. Jeong, “Precise control of a correlated color temperature tunable luminaire for a suitable luminous environment,” Build. Environ. 57, 302–312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Juestel, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kameshima, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Katrašnik, J.

Kim, I. T.

I. T. Kim, A. S. Choi, and J. W. Jeong, “Precise control of a correlated color temperature tunable luminaire for a suitable luminous environment,” Build. Environ. 57, 302–312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, B.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12: Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leyre, S.

Likar, B.

Liu, S.

L. Chen, K. J. Chen, S. F. Hu, and S. Liu, “Combinatorial chemistry approach to searching phosphors for white light-emitting diodes in (Gd-Y-Bi-Eu)VO4 quaternary system,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3677–3685 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. L.

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mayhoub, M. S.

M. S. Mayhoub, D. J. Carter, and T. M. Chung, “Towards hybrid lighting systems: A review,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(1), 51–71 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meuret, Y.

Mueller, G.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Murazaki, Y.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Naito, A.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Naitou, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “Present performance of InGaN-based blue/green/yellow LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3002, 26–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Narendran, N.

Y. T. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pernuš, F.

Sato, S.

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(7A), L838–L839 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(7A), L838–L839 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, P.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schnick, W.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Seo, S.-Y.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12: Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. H.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sone, C. S.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stadler, F.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Su, J. C.

Sung, Y.-E.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12: Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, N.

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(7A), L838–L839 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, H.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taskar, N. R.

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uheda, K.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, H.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yum, J.-H.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12: Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M. H.

M. H. Zhang, Y. Chen, and G. X. He, “Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index,” Sci. World J. 2014, 897960 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhu, Y. T.

Y. T. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. Holonyak and S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (Visible) light emission from Ga(As1-xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1(4), 82–83 (1962).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[Crossref]

Build. Environ. (1)

I. T. Kim, A. S. Choi, and J. W. Jeong, “Precise control of a correlated color temperature tunable luminaire for a suitable luminous environment,” Build. Environ. 57, 302–312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. (1)

M. Meneghini, M. Dal Lago, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Thermally activated degradation of remote phosphors for application in LED lighting,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 13(1), 316–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

L. Chen, K. J. Chen, S. F. Hu, and S. Liu, “Combinatorial chemistry approach to searching phosphors for white light-emitting diodes in (Gd-Y-Bi-Eu)VO4 quaternary system,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3677–3685 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (6)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, “Breakthroughs in improving crystal quality of GaN and invention of the p-n junction blue-light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(12), 9001–9010 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting-diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Zhu and N. Narendran, “Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(7A), L838–L839 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lighting Res. Tech. (1)

M. S. Mayhoub, D. J. Carter, and T. M. Chung, “Towards hybrid lighting systems: A review,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(1), 51–71 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 133–141 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, “Present performance of InGaN-based blue/green/yellow LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 3002, 26–35 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12: Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sci. World J. (1)

M. H. Zhang, Y. Chen, and G. X. He, “Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index,” Sci. World J. 2014, 897960 (2014).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

R. W. G. Hunt, M. R. Pointer, and M. Pointer, Measuring Colour (John Wiley & Sons, 2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic structure of the LC cell. (b) Arrangement of the LEDs, phosphor, and LC cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Emission spectra of royal blue LEDs (blue line with solid circles) and yellow phosphor (red line with triangles).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relative positions of 80 points measured from the top of light source (a) without and (d) with dome-shaped diffuser. (b) Intensities and (c) CCT distributions of the corresponding points from (a); (e) measured intensities and (f) CCTs from (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Angular distribution of intensity for setup with (solid line) and without (dotted line) dome-shaped diffuser installed.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra of mixed light under various applied voltages.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 CIE chromaticity diagram of mixed light obtained under different applied voltages.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Spectra and (b) CIE chromaticity diagram of modified mixed light under different applied voltages.

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