Abstract

Nanoparticle scattering layer based on polymer-metal oxide composite is successfully introduced to enhance the light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). We find that the density and the distribution of nanoparticles is the key factor to maximize the light extraction efficiency of pristine OLEDs by out-coupling the unusable light with the scattering film. In our experiment, 71 wt% of Al2O3 mixed with polymer matrix shows the increase of light extraction efficiency of 40%. This method is expected to play a critical role to create the low-power OLED application such as OLED lightings with simple fabrication process and low cost.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. K. Patel, S. Ciná, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, “Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033303 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).
  14. C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
  16. J. Lee, Y. Y. Kwon, E.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Yoon, and H. Kim, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using silica nanoparticles embedded in TiO₂ matrices,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A705–A714 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, NY 1998).
  19. G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).
  21. J.-H. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Interfacial doping for efficient charge injection in organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 209(8), 1399–1413 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Y. Kwon, E.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Yoon, and H. Kim, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using silica nanoparticles embedded in TiO₂ matrices,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A705–A714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

2012 (3)

J.-H. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Interfacial doping for efficient charge injection in organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 209(8), 1399–1413 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, “Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033303 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

2005 (1)

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. K. Patel, S. Ciná, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bathelt, R.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonroy, K.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Borghs, G.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bruno, A.

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buchhauser, D.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J. H.

N. K. Patel, S. Ciná, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cai, S.-D.

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-H.

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Chang, K.-Y.

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-J.

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, E.-H.

Choi, K. C.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chopra, N.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, “Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ciná, S.

N. K. Patel, S. Ciná, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

De Girolamo Del Mauro, A.

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Döhler, G. H.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fasolino, T.

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.-H.

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gärditz, C.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

Hamwi, S.

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, J. H.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. L.

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M.-H.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Huang, Y.-H.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kahn, A.

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-Y.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, J. Y.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-H. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Interfacial doping for efficient charge injection in organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 209(8), 1399–1413 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kowalsky, W.

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kröger, M.

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.-S.

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y. Y.

Laureyn, W.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y. Y. Kwon, E.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Yoon, and H. Kim, “Enhancement of light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using silica nanoparticles embedded in TiO₂ matrices,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A705–A714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, “Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Interfacial doping for efficient charge injection in organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 209(8), 1399–1413 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

Li, F.

F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.-S.

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, M.-S.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Lo, Y.-J.

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lüseem, B.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

Maes, G.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Massera, E.

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meskamp, L. M.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

Meyer, J.

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Minarini, C.

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mullens, J.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Nenna, G.

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Paetzold, R.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

Palma, R. D.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Park, J.

Patel, N. K.

N. K. Patel, S. Ciná, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peeters, S.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Peng, H.

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Riedl, T.

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, X.-B.

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

So, F.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, “Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tien, K.-C.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Tsai, C.-H.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Tsai, Y.-T.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

Van Bael, M. J.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

Van Den Rul, H.

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wellmann, P.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wong, M.

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

Wu, C.-C.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoon, H.

Yu, X.-J.

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, N. Chopra, and F. So, “Cavity effects on light extraction in organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033303 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, and Y. H. Kim, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kröger, S. Hamwi, J. Meyer, T. Riedl, W. Kowalsky, and A. Kahn, “Role of the deep-lying electronic states of MoO 3 in the enhancement of hole-injection in organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D.-Y. Zhou, X.-B. Shi, C.-H. Gao, S.-D. Cai, Y. Jin, and L.-S. Liao, “Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 314, 858–863 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. D. Palma, S. Peeters, M. J. Van Bael, H. Van Den Rul, K. Bonroy, W. Laureyn, J. Mullens, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Silane ligand exchange to make hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles Water-Dispersible,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1821–1831 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. K. Patel, S. Ciná, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. M. Meskamp, B. Lüseem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light- emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 278–282 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Nanomater. (1)

G. Nenna, A. De Girolamo Del Mauro, E. Massera, A. Bruno, T. Fasolino, and C. Minarini, “Optical properties of polystyrene-ZnO nanocomposite scattering layer to improve light extraction in organic light-emitting diode,” J. Nanomater. 2012, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. SID. (1)

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, M.-S. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, Y.-T. Tsai, and C.-C. Wu, “Organic light-emitting devices integrated with internal scattering layers for enhancing optical out-coupling,” J. SID. 19, 196–204 (2011).

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (4)

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Chang, K.-Y. Chang, Y.-J. Lo, S.-J. Chang, and H.-H. Chang, “Fourfold power efficiency improvement in organic light-emitting devices using an embedded nanocomposite scattering layer,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1073–1080 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Li, X. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices by using microcontact printed silica colloidal crystals,” Org. Electron. 8(5), 635–639 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status. Solidi A (1)

J.-H. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Interfacial doping for efficient charge injection in organic semiconductors,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 209(8), 1399–1413 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, NY 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process of nanoparticle scattering film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical microscopic images of nanoparticle scattering films on bare glass substrate with different mixture ratio. Nanoparticle composition of each mixture is (a) 54wt%, (b) 71wt%, (c) 85wt%, and (d) 94wt%, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmittance of nanoparticle scattering film with 71 wt% nanoparticle (Inset is the photograph of nanoparticle scattering film on the glass substrate).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The current density-voltage-luminance (J-V-L) characteristics of OLED devices with (red circle) and without (black square) scattering film.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) EL spectrum (b) EQE of OLEDs with (red circle) and without (black square) the nanoparticle scattering film (with 71 wt% nanoparticle).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Angular intensity distribution of OLEDs with (red circle) or without (black square) nanoparticle scattering film. (Solid line is Lambertian distribution) Inset photograph is the OLEDs with (upper devices) and without (lower devices) nanoparticle scattering film.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical characteristics of nanoparticle scattering film

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