Abstract

We design and demonstrate broadband directional couplers that use asymmetric-waveguide based phase control sections, on the silicon-on-insulator platform. Broadband directional couplers with various power splitting ratios, including 10%/90%, 20%/80%, 30%/70%, 40%/60% and 50%/50%, were realized for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. Some of the devices exhitbit bandwidths in excess of 100 nm, and all in excess of 75 nm. The footprints of the TE mode couplers are 32 μm ×1.3 μm, or less, and those of the TM mode couplers are 13 μm ×1.3 μm, or less.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express 20, 13470–13477 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S.-H. Hsu, “Signal power tapped with low polarization dependence and insensitive wavelength on silicon-on-insulator platforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 941–947 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. V. Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 × 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17, 24020–24029 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287–2289 (2006).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

A. S. K Jinguji, N Takato, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8, 948–964 (1990).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. Campbell, F. Blum, D. Shaw, and K. Lawley, “Gaas electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Applied Physics Letters 27, 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287–2289 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aguinaldo, R.

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blum, F.

J. Campbell, F. Blum, D. Shaw, and K. Lawley, “Gaas electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Applied Physics Letters 27, 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Brackett, C. A.

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8, 948–964 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J.

J. Campbell, F. Blum, D. Shaw, and K. Lawley, “Gaas electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Applied Physics Letters 27, 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Campenhout, J. V.

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, J. N.

Chagnon, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, R.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 adiabatic 3-db coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics North 8915, p. 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design (Cambridge University, 2014).

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cyr, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Davidson, C.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C.

Ding, Y.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flueckiger, J.

Forencich, A.

Gagné, J.-F.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Galland, C.

Gan, F.

Green, W. M.

Guy, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

Harjanne, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287–2289 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Horst, F.

Hosseini, A.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S.-H.

Huang, B.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Jaenen, P.

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jinguji, A. S. K

A. S. K Jinguji, N Takato, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kapulainen, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287–2289 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

A. S. K Jinguji, N Takato, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kumar Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Latrasse, C.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Lawley, K.

J. Campbell, F. Blum, D. Shaw, and K. Lawley, “Gaas electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Applied Physics Letters 27, 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maese-Novo, A.

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mojahedi, M.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Mookherjea, S.

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morsy-Osman, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Niu, B.

Offrein, B. J.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Ou, H.

Painchaud, Y.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Papen, G.

Paquet, C.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Paquet, S.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, F.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

Picard, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Porter, G.

Poulin, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

Robidoux, G.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Ros, F. D.

Savard, S.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Selvaraja, S.

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Shaw, D.

J. Campbell, F. Blum, D. Shaw, and K. Lawley, “Gaas electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Applied Physics Letters 27, 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z.

Shi, W.

Solehmainen, K.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287–2289 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, J. F.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 × 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2014, 102–110 (2014).

Takato, N

A. S. K Jinguji, N Takato, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

Torregiani, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trotter, D. C.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, A.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Wu, A.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, J.

Yang, S.

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A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2006).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2006).

Yu, M.-B.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

yun Lin, C.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Zou, S.

Applied Physics Letters (1)

J. Campbell, F. Blum, D. Shaw, and K. Lawley, “Gaas electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Applied Physics Letters 27, 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. S. K Jinguji, N Takato, and M. Kawachi, “Mach-zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990).
[Crossref]

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C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8, 948–964 (1990).
[Crossref]

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K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287–2289 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A compact and low loss y-junction for submicron silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 1310–1316 (2013).
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J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Integrated optics devices; waveguides; polarization-selective devices,” Opt. Express 22, 4137–4143 (2014).
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R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Wideband silicon-photonic thermo-optic switch in a wavelength-division multiplexed ring network,” Opt. Express 22, 8205–8218 (2014).
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J. V. Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 × 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17, 24020–24029 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Horst, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and B. J. Offrein, “Cascaded mach-zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band wdm (de-)multiplexing,” Opt. Express 21, 11652–11658 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 × 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2014, 102–110 (2014).

Photonics Journal (1)

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. yun Lin, A. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” Photonics Journal 4, 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, F. Pelletier, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, S. Savard, G. Robidoux, M. Picard, S. Paquet, C. Davidson, M. Pelletier, M. Cyr, C. Paquet, M. Guy, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon-based products and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880L (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE, Photonics North (1)

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 adiabatic 3-db coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics North 8915, p. 89150V (2013).
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Other (3)

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design (Cambridge University, 2014).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University, 2006).

https://www.lumerical.com/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1: Schematic of broadband directional coupler.
Fig. 2:
Fig. 2: Supermode distributions of (a) the symmetric couplers and (b) the phase control section. Effective indices in the symmetric couplers for (c) the TE modes and (e) the TM modes. Effective indices in the phase control section for (d) the TE modes and (f) the TM modes.
Fig. 3:
Fig. 3: Contour maps of ηcross as functions of L1 and L2 at λ = 1550 nm for (a) the TE mode and (b) the TM mode. Contours maps of Δηcross as functions of L1 and L2 in the wavelength range from 1500 nm to 1600 nm for (c) the TE mode and (d) the TM mode.
Fig. 4:
Fig. 4: Power distributions of the 50%/50% broadband DCs for (a) TE and (b) TM modes, at different wavelengths.
Fig. 5:
Fig. 5: Simulated ηcross of (a) TE mode and (b) TM mode couplers. The FDTD and the TMM simulation results for broadband DCs are shown by the red lines and the blue lines, respectively. For comparison, the FDTD simulation results of 50%/50% conventional DCs are also shown by the green lines. The conventional DCs are formed with 500 nm wide, 220 nm high SOI strip waveguides separated by a 200 nm gap.
Fig. 6:
Fig. 6: Optical images of (a) test structure; (b) calibration structure and (c) broadband DC.
Fig. 7:
Fig. 7: Measurement results for the 50%/50% broadband DCs. Spectra of the MZIs for (a) the TE mode and (b) the TM mode. Extracted data of the broadband DCs for (c) the TE mode and (d) the TM mode. Extinction ratios in (b) at wavelengths above 1590 nm are limited by the measurement due to the grating coupler insertion loss
Fig. 8:
Fig. 8: Measurement results for the 10%/90% broadband DCs for the (a) TE and (b) TM modes.
Fig. 9:
Fig. 9: Measurement results for the 20%/80% broadband DCs for the (a) TE and (b) TM modes.
Fig. 10:
Fig. 10: Measurement results for the 30%/70% broadband DCs for the (a) TE and (b) TM modes.
Fig. 11:
Fig. 11: Measurement results for the 40%/60% broadband DCs for the (a) TE and (b) TM modes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Device dimensions and performance of broadband DCs

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ E 3 E 4 ] = C P t P P t 1 C [ E 1 E 2 ]
C = [ t j k j k t ] e j π λ ( n + + n ) L 1 α 2 L 1 ,
t = cos ( π Δ n eff λ L 1 ) ; k = sin ( π Δ n eff λ L 1 )
P = [ e j 2 π n 1 λ L 2 α 2 L 2 0 0 e j 2 π n 2 λ L 2 α 2 L 2 ]
P t = [ e j θ t 1 α 2 L t 0 0 e j θ t 2 α 2 L t ]
η cross = | E 4 | 2 | E 3 | 2 + | E 4 | 2 ; η through = | E 3 | 2 | E 3 | 2 + | E 4 | 2
η cross = 1 2 ± 1 2 1 ( 10 ERs 10 1 10 ERs 10 + 1 ) 2 ; η through = 1 η cross

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