Abstract

We present a converged EPS and OCS switching fabric for data center networks (DCNs) based on a distributed optical switching architecture leveraging both WDM & SDM technologies. The architecture is topology adaptive, well suited to dynamic and diverse *-cast traffic patterns. Compared to a typical folded-Clos network, the new architecture is more readily scalable to future multi-Petabyte data centers with 1000 + racks while providing a higher link bandwidth, reducing transceiver count by 50%, and improving cabling efficiency by more than 90%.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (1)

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic 512 x 512 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating router,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 20, 1 (2014).

2013 (1)

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

2012 (2)

Abts, D.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA (2007), pp. 126–137.
[Crossref]

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, S. Scott, and D. Abts, “Technology-driven, highly-scalable dragonfly topology,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-35) (2008), pp. 194–205.

Al-Fares, M.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM,18 (2008).

Andersen, D. G.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Anderson, T.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, and L. Peterson, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” in Proceeding of ACM CCR (2008).

Bai, W.

Y. Peng, K. Chen, G. Wang, W. Bai, Z. Ma, and L. Gu, “Hadoop-watch: a first step towards comprehensive traffic forecasting in cloud computing,” in Proceeding of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2014) pp. 19–27.

Balakrishnan, H.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, and L. Peterson, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” in Proceeding of ACM CCR (2008).

Barwicz, T.

M. A. Popovi, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, and F. W. Gan, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon micro-ring-resonator add-drop filters,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2007).

Chen, K.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Y. Peng, K. Chen, G. Wang, W. Bai, Z. Ma, and L. Gu, “Hadoop-watch: a first step towards comprehensive traffic forecasting in cloud computing,” in Proceeding of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2014) pp. 19–27.

Chen, Y.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, S.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic 512 x 512 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating router,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 20, 1 (2014).

Chigrinov, V.

Chowdhury, M.

M. Chowdhury, Y. Zhong, and I. Stoica, “Efficient coflow scheduling with Varys,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 443–454.

M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2011), pp. 98–109.
[Crossref]

Cui, H. Q.

Dahlem, M. S.

M. A. Popovi, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, and F. W. Gan, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon micro-ring-resonator add-drop filters,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2007).

Dally, W. J.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA (2007), pp. 126–137.
[Crossref]

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, S. Scott, and D. Abts, “Technology-driven, highly-scalable dragonfly topology,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-35) (2008), pp. 194–205.

Fainman, Y.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Farrington, N.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Forencich, A.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Gan, F. W.

M. A. Popovi, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, and F. W. Gan, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon micro-ring-resonator add-drop filters,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2007).

Gao, X.

Y. Liu, X. Gao, B. Wong, and S. Keshav, “Quartz: a new design element for low-latency DCNs,” in Proceeding SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 283–294.
[Crossref]

Gu, L.

Y. Peng, K. Chen, G. Wang, W. Bai, Z. Ma, and L. Gu, “Hadoop-watch: a first step towards comprehensive traffic forecasting in cloud computing,” in Proceeding of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2014) pp. 19–27.

Hadama, K.

Y. Ishii, M. Wakamiya, A. Kanagawa, K. Hadama, J. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kawajiri, “MEMS-based 1×43 wavelength-selective switch with flat passband,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2009) PDP.

Hu, W.

Hu, X. K.

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii, M. Wakamiya, A. Kanagawa, K. Hadama, J. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kawajiri, “MEMS-based 1×43 wavelength-selective switch with flat passband,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2009) PDP.

Jordan, M. I.

M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2011), pp. 98–109.
[Crossref]

Kaminsky, M.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Kanagawa, A.

Y. Ishii, M. Wakamiya, A. Kanagawa, K. Hadama, J. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kawajiri, “MEMS-based 1×43 wavelength-selective switch with flat passband,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2009) PDP.

Kawajiri, Y.

Y. Ishii, M. Wakamiya, A. Kanagawa, K. Hadama, J. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kawajiri, “MEMS-based 1×43 wavelength-selective switch with flat passband,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2009) PDP.

Keshav, S.

Y. Liu, X. Gao, B. Wong, and S. Keshav, “Quartz: a new design element for low-latency DCNs,” in Proceeding SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 283–294.
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, S. Scott, and D. Abts, “Technology-driven, highly-scalable dragonfly topology,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-35) (2008), pp. 194–205.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, and D. Abts, “Flattened butterfly: a cost-efficient topology for high-radix networks,” in Proceeding of ISCA (2007), pp. 126–137.
[Crossref]

Kozuch, M.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Li, J. N.

Liang, X.

Lin, X. W.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Gao, B. Wong, and S. Keshav, “Quartz: a new design element for low-latency DCNs,” in Proceeding SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 283–294.
[Crossref]

Loukissas, A.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM,18 (2008).

Lu, Y. Q.

Ma, J.

M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2011), pp. 98–109.
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

Y. Peng, K. Chen, G. Wang, W. Bai, Z. Ma, and L. Gu, “Hadoop-watch: a first step towards comprehensive traffic forecasting in cloud computing,” in Proceeding of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2014) pp. 19–27.

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, and L. Peterson, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” in Proceeding of ACM CCR (2008).

Mogul, J. C.

J. C. Mogul and L. Popa, “What we talk about when we talk about cloud network performance,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(5), 44–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. S. E.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Okamoto, K.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic 512 x 512 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating router,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 20, 1 (2014).

Papagiannaki, K.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Papen, G.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Parulkar, G.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, and L. Peterson, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” in Proceeding of ACM CCR (2008).

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng, K. Chen, G. Wang, W. Bai, Z. Ma, and L. Gu, “Hadoop-watch: a first step towards comprehensive traffic forecasting in cloud computing,” in Proceeding of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2014) pp. 19–27.

Peterson, L.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, and L. Peterson, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” in Proceeding of ACM CCR (2008).

Popa, L.

J. C. Mogul and L. Popa, “What we talk about when we talk about cloud network performance,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(5), 44–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popovi, M. A.

M. A. Popovi, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, and F. W. Gan, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon micro-ring-resonator add-drop filters,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2007).

Porter, G.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, K.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Rosing, T.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Ryan, M.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Scott, S.

J. Kim, W. J. Dally, S. Scott, and D. Abts, “Technology-driven, highly-scalable dragonfly topology,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA-35) (2008), pp. 194–205.

Singh, A.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Singla, A.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Stoica, I.

M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2011), pp. 98–109.
[Crossref]

M. Chowdhury, Y. Zhong, and I. Stoica, “Efficient coflow scheduling with Varys,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 443–454.

Strong, R.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Su, T.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic 512 x 512 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating router,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 20, 1 (2014).

Sun, P.-C.

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Vahdat, A.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM,18 (2008).

G. Porter, R. Strong, N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, T. Rosing, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2013), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Wakamiya, M.

Y. Ishii, M. Wakamiya, A. Kanagawa, K. Hadama, J. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kawajiri, “MEMS-based 1×43 wavelength-selective switch with flat passband,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2009) PDP.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

Y. Peng, K. Chen, G. Wang, W. Bai, Z. Ma, and L. Gu, “Hadoop-watch: a first step towards comprehensive traffic forecasting in cloud computing,” in Proceeding of INFOCOM (IEEE, 2014) pp. 19–27.

Wen, X.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Wong, B.

Y. Liu, X. Gao, B. Wong, and S. Keshav, “Quartz: a new design element for low-latency DCNs,” in Proceeding SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 283–294.
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Yamaguchi, J.

Y. Ishii, M. Wakamiya, A. Kanagawa, K. Hadama, J. Yamaguchi, and Y. Kawajiri, “MEMS-based 1×43 wavelength-selective switch with flat passband,” in Proceeding of ECOC (2009) PDP.

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic 512 x 512 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating router,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 20, 1 (2014).

Zaharia, M.

M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2011), pp. 98–109.
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. P.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. P. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center with unprecedented flexibility,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Trans. 22(2), 498–511 (2013).

Zhong, Y.

M. Chowdhury, Y. Zhong, and I. Stoica, “Efficient coflow scheduling with Varys,” in Proceeding of SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 443–454.

Zhu, G.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. (1)

S. Cheung, T. Su, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic 512 x 512 25 GHz arrayed waveguide grating router,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 20, 1 (2014).

in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 OvS architecture: (a) Full-mesh connection of a flattened butterfly network; (b) Optical schematic design of OvS (2D); (c) Achieving full mesh connection among 4 nodes/racks using distributed WXC design.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An OvS network under 2-D configurations, which is connected through ribbon fiber cable.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OvS networking: (a) OvS supports *-cast traffic and reconfigurable link BW; (b) OvS to integrate EPS (base mesh) and OCS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 AWGR based design: (a) AWGR based wavelength selective scheme vs. Nx1 WSS based design; (b) OvS implementation using AWGR based wavelength selective switching scheme.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Ring-resonator based design: (a) Wavelength selective switch design based on ring-resonators; (b) OvS implementation using ring resonator based wavelength selective switching scheme.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Throughput study of a 32x32 OvS network: (a) Blocking rate under different traffic load (or called system load, network load) in terms of required circuit paths; (b) Wavelength usage, the color bar indicates the percent utilization; (c) Blocking rate and its max-min range vs. different rack numbers; (d) The same as (c) except with one failed node.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Implementation of OvS prototype: (a) Schematics of prototype OvS using 8x1 WSS; (b) PRF design that can support bi-directional traffic; (c) OvS prototype photo, the ribbon cable and SFP + ER transceivers used.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Software implementation of OvS prototype: (a) OvS software components; (b) Snapshot of OpenDayLight GUI that communicates with OvS and OvS Web GUI.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Optical performance result: (a) Rx end path loss Histogram; (b) OSNR performance; (c) Typical optical switching latency.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Network test-bed of OvS platform with 5 OvSes inter-connected through ribbon fiber cable.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Evaluation of OvS by applications: (a) Packet Loss Comparison; (b) RTT comparison; (c) PageRank completion time; (d) Kmeans Completion time; (e) Word count completion time; (f) Performance comparison with & without service separation. The 2 and 3 nodes are using OvS, the 2 tier tree is a typical 2 tier fat-tree network.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Throughput Results: (a) Service separation; (b) Adaptive bandwidth assignment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance comparison vs. folded-Clos

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of different optical DCN architectures using OCS

Metrics