Abstract

A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field averaging method based on the alignment of randomly pointing field phasors is developed to reduce speckle noise. The variation of the polarization states incident on the tissue due to the circular scanning and catheter sheath birefringence is investigated. With this system we demonstrated imaging of ex vivo chicken muscle, in vivo pig lung and ex vivo human lung specimens.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (6)

A. M. D. Lee, H. Pahlevaninezhad, V. X. D. Yang, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. Lane, “Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3638–3641 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2736–2758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, T. Shaipanich, R. Raizada, L. Cahill, G. Hohert, V. X. D. Yang, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. Lane, “A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2978–2987 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fu, Z. Wang, H. Wang, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “Fiber-optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive OCT for radio-frequency ablation monitoring,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5066–5069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. F. de Boer, “Coherent signal composition and global phase determination in signal multiplexed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21382–21392 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (11)

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, M. Villiger, M. B. Applegate, M. Mino-Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Seeing beyond the Bronchoscope to Increase the Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopic Biopsy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 187(2), 125–129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, B. C. Quirk, M. Auger, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 266–268 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Artifacts in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography caused by polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 923–925 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography - near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30849–30858 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W.-Y. Oh, “High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 223–232 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (6)

2008 (2)

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4 Pt 1), 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahsen, O. O.

Applegate, M. B.

L. P. Hariri, M. Villiger, M. B. Applegate, M. Mino-Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Seeing beyond the Bronchoscope to Increase the Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopic Biopsy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 187(2), 125–129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auger, M.

Baldwin, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beurskens, R.

Bisland, S.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

L. P. Hariri, M. Villiger, M. B. Applegate, M. Mino-Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Seeing beyond the Bronchoscope to Increase the Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopic Biopsy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 187(2), 125–129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Artifacts in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography caused by polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 923–925 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W.-Y. Oh, “High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 223–232 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
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L. P. Hariri, M. Villiger, M. B. Applegate, M. Mino-Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Seeing beyond the Bronchoscope to Increase the Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopic Biopsy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 187(2), 125–129 (2013).
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M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86011 (2013).
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Yang, X.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070501 (2012).
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Zhang, N.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86011 (2013).
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Zhao, Y.

Zheng, J. G.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

Zhou, T.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1)

L. P. Hariri, M. Villiger, M. B. Applegate, M. Mino-Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Seeing beyond the Bronchoscope to Increase the Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopic Biopsy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 187(2), 125–129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
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J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
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T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
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H. S. Cho, S.-J. Jang, K. Kim, A. V. Dan-Chin-Yu, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and W.-Y. Oh, “High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 223–232 (2013).
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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2736–2758 (2014).
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Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
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H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, T. Shaipanich, R. Raizada, L. Cahill, G. Hohert, V. X. D. Yang, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. Lane, “A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2978–2987 (2014).
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Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
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Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4 Pt 1), 474–479 (2000).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86011 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
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J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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Opt. Express (13)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. Hitzenberger, “Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5940–5951 (2004).
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M. Pierce, M. Shishkov, B. Park, N. Nassif, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Effects of sample arm motion in endoscopic polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5739–5749 (2005).
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K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express 19(2), 552–561 (2011).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang and B. J. Vakoc, “Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation,” Opt. Express 19(18), 16830–16842 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, S. J. Tang, N. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2416–2424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. de Groot, F. Helderman, J. Mo, J. M. A. Daniels, K. Grünberg, T. G. Sutedja, and J. F. de Boer, “High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24132–24138 (2012).
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J. Li and J. F. de Boer, “Coherent signal composition and global phase determination in signal multiplexed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21382–21392 (2014).
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B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
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A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography - near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30849–30858 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (11)

Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1958–1960 (2012).
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A. M. D. Lee, H. Pahlevaninezhad, V. X. D. Yang, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. Lane, “Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3638–3641 (2014).
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X. Fu, Z. Wang, H. Wang, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “Fiber-optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive OCT for radio-frequency ablation monitoring,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5066–5069 (2014).
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
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D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2715 KB)     
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Endoscopic PS-OFDI System schematic. FC: fiber-optic coupler, PC: polarization controller, FBG: fiber Bragg grating.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Balanced spectra of reference arm input. Horizontal axis: wavelength. Vertical axis: Balanced power at the receiver. Green trace: spectrum acquired by the horizontal (H) channel; Magenta trace: spectrum acquired by the vertical (V) channel.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Stokes vector representation of the evolution of a reflected state from the sample arm as a function of wavelength, rendered through open access MatLab code [39]. Blue trace: state 1; Red trace: state 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diagram of field phasor alignment. For each sampling point there is a field matrix E consisting of four field phasors. (a) The neighboring points have similar relative phase angles between these phasors, though global phase adds random rotation on all of them. (b) By aligning the vector sum of the four phasors to the positive real axis, the neighboring phasors are aligned correspondingly. The colored arrows represent field phasors. The dash arrow represents the vector sum of the four phasors.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absolute phases of H 1 + H 2 + V 1 + V 2 components of a B-scan measurement, before (a) and after (b) phasor alignment. The grayscale ranges from -π to + π It is clearly seen that before the alignment the phases are totally random while after the alignment the phases have only slow variation due to tissue birefringence.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured Stokes parameters and trace of Stokes vectors for a whole B-scan (960 A-lines) for Fresnel reflection signals on the inner (top row) and outer (bottom row) surface of the sheath. Blue trace: state 1; Red trace: state 2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of the optics of the catheter. For simplicity, accessorial holders and motor wires are not shown. Polarization state changes occur predominantly at A: reflection on metallic mirror; and B: propagation in Pebax sheath.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Images of ex vivo chicken muscle and tendon. Top: structural image; Bottom-left: phase retardation image without field averaging; Bottom-right: phase retardation image with field averaging. For the phase retardation images the grayscale ranges from -π to + π. Position between 5 o’clock and 6 o’clock is blocked by the motor wires.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Image of in vivo pig bronchus. Left: structural image; Right: phase retardation image. Position between 9 o’clock and 10 o’clock is blocked by the motor wires. EP: epithelium, LP: lamina propria, SM: submucosa, CA: cartilage. IS/OS: Inner/Outer surface of catheter sheath. Videos are available online (Media 1 and Media 2).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Image of ex vivo human bronchus. Left: structural image; Right: phase retardation image. Position between 5 o’clock and 6 o’clock is blocked by the motor wires.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r= I var I total , I var = ( I(λ) I(λ) ) 2 .
Δϕ=ΔτΔω.
Δω= 2πcΔλ / λ 0 2 .
Δτ= Δϕ / Δω = Δϕ λ 0 2 / 2πcΔλ .
Θ=arctan( Im( H 1 + H 2 + V 1 + V 2 ) Re( H 1 + H 2 + V 1 + V 2 ) ).

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