Abstract

Ultra-short- and short-reach optical interconnects are the new high growth applications for optical communications. High capacity density, high spectral efficiency, low cost, low power consumption, and fast configurability are some of the key requirements for potential optical transmission technology candidates. Based on recent progress in orbital angular momentum multiplexed optical transmission and optical device technologies, this paper discusses the potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum multiplexing in optical interconnect applications scenarios to meet above requirements.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (7)

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “A hybrid integrated light source on a silicon platform using a trident spot-size converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(7), 1329–1336 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Al-Ababneh, “Crosstalk reduction in free space optical interconnects systems using microlenses with Gaussian transmittance,” Opt. Commun. 318, 79–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Nasalski, “Vortex and anti-vortex compositions of exact elegant Laguerre-Gaussian vector beams,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 155–159 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Characterization of OAM fibers using fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15653–15661 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26117–26127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guan, R. P. Scott, C. Qin, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22(1), 145–156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat Commun 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, B. Kögel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, N. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed 850 nm VCSELs with 28GHz modulation bandwidth operating error-free up to 44Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(18), 1145–1147 (2012).

Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 20(26), B256–B263 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, S. Wang, J. Hu, I. Savidis, M. Jain, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and H. Wu, “3-D integrated heterogeneous intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4331–4345 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multicore fiber: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photon. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

E. Santamato, “Photon orbital angular momentum: problems and perspectives,” Fortschr. Phys. 52(11–12), 1141–1153 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, M. J. McFadden, and M. W. Haney, “Multiscale optical design for global chip-to-chip optical interconnections and misalignment tolerant packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 548–556 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rational and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640 Gbit/s TDM signals,” Electron. Lett. 34(10), 1013–1014 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394(6691), 348–350 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM Network Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 955–966 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Louri and Hongki Sung, “3D optical interconnects for high-speed interchip and interboard communications,” Computer 27(10), 27–37 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, B. Kögel, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 46(14), 1014–1016 (2010).
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M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, M. J. McFadden, and M. W. Haney, “Multiscale optical design for global chip-to-chip optical interconnections and misalignment tolerant packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 548–556 (2003).
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B. M. Rogers, A. Krishna, G. Bell, K. Vu, X. Jiang, and Y. Solihin, “Scaling the bandwidth wall: challenges in and avenues for CMP scaling,” in 36th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, Austin, TX, USA, 371–382 (2009).
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M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat Commun 5, 4856 (2014).
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B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, S. Wang, J. Hu, I. Savidis, M. Jain, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and H. Wu, “3-D integrated heterogeneous intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4331–4345 (2012).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A classical picture of the OAM mode and associated wave vector projections.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Potential OAM-based optical interconnection scheme in 3D integrated chip stack (exploded view).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of all-optical interconnect and routing based on OAM technology. The gratings can be dynamically reconfigured to implement routing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 OAM –emitting VCSELs. Rows 1-4: VCSELs emitting a single OAM mode. Rows5-6: VCSELs emitting a combination of two concentric OAM modes. Column 1: SEM micrograph of the VCSEL aperture; Column 2: observed far-field patterns; Column 3: simulated far-field patterns; Column 4: simulated far-field phase as revealed by interferograms between the VCSEL far-field and a plane wave.

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