Abstract

A compact light source module for ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stoke Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy was developed. It mainly consists of a nanosecond microchip laser, a photonic crystal fiber for Stokes light generation, and a single mode polarization maintaining fiber for pump light propagation. It is alignment-free and relatively low-cost compared with previous light sources of CARS microscopy. By using an assembled module, we successfully observed an ultrabroadband CARS spectrum and a CARS image of a murine adipocyte. The module is expected to greatly spread the CARS microscopy to various fields by its extreme easiness to handle.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Liu, M. D. King, H. Tu, Y. Zhao, and S. A. Boppart, “Broadband nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy by shaping a coherent fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8269–8275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

2002 (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Abreu-Afonso, J.

Anis, H.

Araki, T.

Arnaud-Cormos, D.

Balu, M.

Baumgartl, M.

Bégin, S.

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

Boppart, S. A.

Brideau, C.

Buckup, T.

Burgoyne, B.

Camp Jr, C. H.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

Chemnitz, M.

Chen, Z.

Cicerone, M. T.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Côté, D.

Couderc, V.

De Angelis, A.

Dietzek, B.

Díez, A.

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duncan, M. D.

Evans, C. L.

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

Gambetta, A.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gottschall, T.

Grancini, G.

Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Hanke, T.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartshorn, C. M.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, M.

Heddleston, J. M.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herda, R.

Hight Walker, A. R.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. Sunney Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Holzner, S.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, N.

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jauregui, C.

Kano, H.

Karasawa, N.

K. Tada and N. Karasawa, “Single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using both pump and soliton Stokes pulses from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 92701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K. Q.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, M. D.

Kong, L.

Korbelik, M.

Krauss, G.

Kumar, V.

Labruyère, A.

Lathia, J. D.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lefrancois, S.

Légaré, F.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Leproux, P.

Lévèque, P.

Limpert, J.

Liu, G.

Liu, Y.

Lui, H.

Manuccia, T. J.

Marangoni, M.

Mercier, V.

Meyer, T.

Moica, A.

Motzkus, M.

Müller, M.

Murugkar, S.

Naji, M.

Okuno, M.

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Picqué, N.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polli, D.

Popp, J.

Potma, E. O.

Ramponi, R.

Reintjes, J.

Rich, J. N.

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rinia, H. A.

Rothhardt, M.

Schneider, P.

Segawa, H.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Short, M.

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, B.

Srivastava, P.

Stys, P. K.

Sunney Xie, X.

Tada, K.

K. Tada and N. Karasawa, “Single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using both pump and soliton Stokes pulses from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 92701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tonello, A.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tu, H.

Tünnermann, A.

Vallée, R.

Vartiainen, E. M.

Villeneuve, A.

von Vacano, B.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, H.

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Towards CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zach, A.

Zeng, H.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, Y.

Zumbusch, A.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Tada and N. Karasawa, “Single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using both pump and soliton Stokes pulses from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 92701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Camp Jr, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

Y. Liu, M. D. King, H. Tu, Y. Zhao, and S. A. Boppart, “Broadband nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy by shaping a coherent fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8269–8275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Meyer, C. Jauregui, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Widely tuneable fiber optical parametric amplifier for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26583–26595 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, J. Abreu-Afonso, A. Díez, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, M. Rothhardt, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Alignment-free, all-spliced fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on four-wave-mixing,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21010–21018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Baumgartl, M. Chemnitz, C. Jauregui, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “All-fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on fiber optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4484–4493 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, “Direct extraction of Raman line-shapes from congested CARS spectra,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3622–3630 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Huang, M. Short, J. Zhao, H. Wang, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Full range characterization of the Raman spectra of organs in a murine model,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22892–22909 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Balu, G. Liu, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2380–2388 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Towards CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Murugkar, B. Smith, P. Srivastava, A. Moica, M. Naji, C. Brideau, P. K. Stys, and H. Anis, “Miniaturized multimodal CARS microscope based on MEMS scanning and a single laser source,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23796–23804 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. De Angelis, A. Labruyère, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, A. Tonello, H. Segawa, M. Okuno, H. Kano, D. Arnaud-Cormos, P. Lévèque, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Time-frequency resolved analysis of a nanosecond supercontinuum source dedicated to multiplex CARS application,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29705–29716 (2012).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Cheng and X. S. Xie, eds., Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy (CRC, 2012).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Fifth Edition (Academic, 2012).

R. L. McCreery, http://www.chem.ualberta.ca/~mccreery/ramanmaterials.html

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic of experimental setup. HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; LPF, longpass filter; PMF, polarization maintaining fiber; BPF, bandpass filter; DM, dichroic mirror.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Stokes light powers for various PCF lengths. (b) A power spectrum of supercontinuum after 3 m PCF. (c) A power spectrum of supercontinuum after 1 m PCF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Pump powers, (b) temporal waveforms of pump light component, and (c) observed spectra, at 3 m PMF output for various incident light powers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Design drawing of the light source module. (b) Assembled module. (c) Observed temporal waveforms of the pump and the Stokes light beams from the assembled module.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of experimental setup for CARS microscopy with the light source module.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) An observed CARS spectrum of polystyrene normalized by nonresonant CARS spectrum of water. (b) A reconstructed Raman spectrum of polystyrene. (c) A reconstructed Raman spectrum of a murine adipocyte.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 CARS image of a murine adipose cell. Scale bar: 5 μm.

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