Abstract

Phase noise of the period-one (P1) nonlinear dynamical oscillation in an optically injected semiconductor laser is numerically investigated. The P1 dynamics causes the laser output intensity to oscillate at a widely tunable frequency for photonic microwave generation, although the intrinsic spontaneous emission in the laser inevitably degrades the microwave signal and manifests as the oscillation phase noise. To characterize the phase noise, the P1 microwave linewidth is first numerically examined through the rate equations with a Langevin term. The P1 microwave linewidth is found to vary with the injection parameters. It is nearly minimized when the microwave power maximizes. Owing to the laser nonlinearities, the P1 microwave linewidth can even be smaller than the free-running optical linewidth. By adding an optical feedback to the laser, the P1 microwave linewidth is found to reduce as the feedback strength and feedback delay increase, in which an inverse-square dependency is followed asymptotically. By modification to a dual-loop feedback, noisy side peaks around the central P1 frequency are effectively suppressed through the Vernier effect. The dual-loop feedback maintains a low phase noise variance over a wide tuning range of the P1 frequency, while allowing long delay times for significant P1 microwave linewidth narrowing.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

2013 (12)

J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, “Tunable photonic microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor laser dynamics with optical feedback stabilization,” Opt. Lett. 38, 344–346 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Hung, C. H. Chu, and S. K. Hwang, “Optical double-sideband modulation to single-sideband modulation conversion using period-one nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers for radio-over-fiber links,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1482–1484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Hung and S. K. Hwang, “Photonic microwave amplification for radio-over-fiber links using period-one nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3355–3358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Liao and F. Y. Lin, “Dynamical characteristics and their applications of semiconductor lasers subject to both optical injection and optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 23568–23578 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li and A. S. Helmy, “Gigahertz to terahertz tunable all-optical single-side-band microwave generation via semiconductor optical amplifier gain engineering,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4542–4545 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500807 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Grillot, C. Wang, N. A. Naderi, and J. Even, “Modulation properties of self-injected quantum-dot semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900812 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, M. Zanola, G. Mezosi, and M. Sorel, “Generation of picosecond pulses over a 40-nm wavelength range using an array of distributed Bragg grating mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, J. M. L. Figueiredo, C. N. Ironside, H. I. Cantu, and A. E. Kelly, “Delayed feedback dynamics of Lienard-type resonant tunneling-photo-detector optoelectronic oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 31–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zanola, M. J. Strain, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Monolithically integrated DFB lasers for tunable and narrow linewidth millimeter-wave generation,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 1500406 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Generation of tunable millimeter-wave and THz signals with an optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5900107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (10)

S. Donati and S. K. Hwang, “Chaos and high-level dynamics in coupled lasers and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 36, 293–341 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jo, W. Y. Choi, and H. K. Sung, “Dual-loop dual-modulation optoelectronic oscillators with highly suppressed spurious tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 706–708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Pochet, T. Locke, and N. G. Usechak, “Generation and modulation of a millimeter-wave subcarrier on an optical frequency generated via optical injection,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1881–1891 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. S. Li, Q. Liu, and S. C. Chan, “Distributed feedbacks for time-delay signature suppression of chaos generated from a semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1930–1935 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Cui and S. C. Chan, “Performance analysis on using period-one oscillation of optically injected semiconductor lasers for radio-over-fiber uplinks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 490–499 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Haji, L. P. Hou, A. E. Kelly, J. Akbar, J. H. Marsh, J. M. Arnold, and C. N. Ironside, “High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes,” Opt. Express 20, 3268–3274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. N. Tan, L. Jin, L. Cheng, Z. Quan, M. Li, and B. O. Guan, “Multi-octave tunable RF signal generation based on a dual-polarization fiber grating laser,” Opt. Express 20, 6961–6967 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Quirce and A. Valle, “High-frequency microwave signal generation using multi-transverse mode VCSELs subject to two-frequency optical injection,” Opt. Express 20, 13390–13401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Cheng, C. W. Lee, T. W. Lin, and F. Y. Lin, “Dual-frequency laser Doppler velocimeter for speckle noise reduction and coherence enhancement,” Opt. Express 20, 20255–20265 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Carpintero, E. Rouvalis, K. Lawniczuk, M. Fice, C. C. Renaud, X. J. M. Leijtens, E. A. J. M. Bente, M. Chitoui, F. V. Dijk, and A. J. Seeds, “95 GHz millimeter wave signal generation using an arrayed waveguide grating dual wavelength semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3657–3659 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, D. W. Pierce, A. J. Basnet, A. Quirce, Y. Zhang, and A. Valle, “Two-frequency injection on a multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19, 22437–22442 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pochet, N. A. Naderi, V. Kovanis, and L. F. Lester, “Modeling the dynamic response of an optically-injected nanostructure diode laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 827–833 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-μ m applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, and L. F. Lester, “Microwave characterization and stabilization of timing jitter in a quantum-dot passively mode-locked laser via external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311–1317 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Qi and J. M. Liu, “Photonic microwave applications of the dynamics of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1198–1211 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Qi and J. M. Liu, “Dynamics scenarios of dual-beam optically injected semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 762–769 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, T. Liu, A. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “All-optical clock frequency divider using Fabry-Perot laser diode based on the dynamical period-one oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1289–1294 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1405–1407 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 15, 14921–14935 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photon. 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Renaudier, G. H. Duan, P. Landais, and P. Gallion, “Phase correlation and linewidth reduction of 40 GHz self-pulsation in distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 147–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Bortnik, Y. C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. B. Altes, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552–562 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Radio-over-fiber AM-to-FM upconversion using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2254–2256 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Microwave frequency division and multiplication using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1142–1147 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Tunable narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation using semiconductor laser dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, and K. A. Shore, “Numerical study of optical injection dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 25–30 (2004).
[Crossref]

O. Carroll, Y. Tanguy, J. Houlihan, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of self-pulsing semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. 239, 429–436 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. Al-Mumin, X. Wang, W. Mao, S. Pappert, and G. F. Li, “Optical generation and sideband injection locking of tunable 11-120 GHz microwave/millimetre signals,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1547–1548 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

T. B. Simpson and F. Doft, “Double-locked laser diode for microwave photonics applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1476–1478 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson, “Phase-locked microwave-frequency modulations in optically-injected laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 170, 93–98 (1999).
[Crossref]

X. H. Wang and G. F. Li, “Subcarrier frequency enhancement of two-section Fabry-Perot laser diodes using external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 171, 113–118 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. M. Varangis, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and L. F. Lester, “Linewidth broadening across a dynamical instability,” Phys. Lett. A 250, 117–122 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. F. Li, D. M Nair, and K. M. Magde, “Amplitude and phase noise of periodic orbits in a nonlinear optical system: theory and experiments,” IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Proc. 2, 178–179 (1997).

F. Tian, J. Chen, and G. F. Li, “Amplitude and phase noise of self-pulsations in laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 312–312 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise, and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

K. Petermann, “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 480–489 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

X. Wang, G. F. Li, and C. S. Ih, “Microwave/millimeter-wave frequency subcarrier lightwave modulations based on self-sustained pulsation of laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 309–315 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. B. Georges and K. Y. Lau, “Self-pulsating laser diodes as fast-tunable (≤1 ns) FSK transmitters in subcarrier multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 242–245 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

C. Henry, “Phase noise in semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 298–311 (1986).
[Crossref]

Accard, A.

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-μ m applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adams, M. J.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Generation of tunable millimeter-wave and THz signals with an optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5900107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akbar, J.

Akrout, A.

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-μ m applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

AlMulla, M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Limit-cycle dynamics with reduced sensitivity to perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Al-Mumin, M.

M. Al-Mumin, X. Wang, W. Mao, S. Pappert, and G. F. Li, “Optical generation and sideband injection locking of tunable 11-120 GHz microwave/millimetre signals,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1547–1548 (2000).
[Crossref]

Altes, J. B.

J. B. Altes, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arnold, J. M.

Basnet, A. J.

Bente, E. A. J. M.

Blondel, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bortnik, B.

B. Bortnik, Y. C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

Cantu, H. I.

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, J. M. L. Figueiredo, C. N. Ironside, H. I. Cantu, and A. E. Kelly, “Delayed feedback dynamics of Lienard-type resonant tunneling-photo-detector optoelectronic oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 31–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photon. 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carpintero, G.

Carroll, O.

O. Carroll, Y. Tanguy, J. Houlihan, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of self-pulsing semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. 239, 429–436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chan, S. C.

J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, “Tunable photonic microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor laser dynamics with optical feedback stabilization,” Opt. Lett. 38, 344–346 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cui and S. C. Chan, “Performance analysis on using period-one oscillation of optically injected semiconductor lasers for radio-over-fiber uplinks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 490–499 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. S. Li, Q. Liu, and S. C. Chan, “Distributed feedbacks for time-delay signature suppression of chaos generated from a semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1930–1935 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, “Analysis of an optically injected semiconductor laser for microwave generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Cui, X. Fu, and S. C. Chan, “Double-locked semiconductor laser for radio-over-fiber uplink transmission,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3821–3823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 15, 14921–14935 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Radio-over-fiber AM-to-FM upconversion using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2254–2256 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Microwave frequency division and multiplication using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1142–1147 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Tunable narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation using semiconductor laser dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552–562 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. F.

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise, and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

F. Tian, J. Chen, and G. F. Li, “Amplitude and phase noise of self-pulsations in laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 312–312 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. H.

Cheng, L.

Chitoui, M.

Choi, W. Y.

J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jo, W. Y. Choi, and H. K. Sung, “Dual-loop dual-modulation optoelectronic oscillators with highly suppressed spurious tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 706–708 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chow, W. W.

S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552–562 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552–562 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. H.

Cui, C.

C. Cui and S. C. Chan, “Performance analysis on using period-one oscillation of optically injected semiconductor lasers for radio-over-fiber uplinks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 490–499 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Cui, X. Fu, and S. C. Chan, “Double-locked semiconductor laser for radio-over-fiber uplink transmission,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3821–3823 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de DiosFernandez, C.

E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deparis, O.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dijk, F. V.

Doft, F.

T. B. Simpson and F. Doft, “Double-locked laser diode for microwave photonics applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1476–1478 (1999).
[Crossref]

Donati, S.

Duan, G. H.

J. Renaudier, G. H. Duan, P. Landais, and P. Gallion, “Phase correlation and linewidth reduction of 40 GHz self-pulsation in distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 147–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Emplit, P.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Erneux, T.

T. Erneux and P. Glorieux, Laser Dynamics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010).
[Crossref]

Even, J.

F. Grillot, C. Wang, N. A. Naderi, and J. Even, “Modulation properties of self-injected quantum-dot semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900812 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fetterman, H. R.

B. Bortnik, Y. C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fice, M.

Fice, M. J.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Figueiredo, J. M. L.

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, J. M. L. Figueiredo, C. N. Ironside, H. I. Cantu, and A. E. Kelly, “Delayed feedback dynamics of Lienard-type resonant tunneling-photo-detector optoelectronic oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 31–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Gallion, P.

J. Renaudier, G. H. Duan, P. Landais, and P. Gallion, “Phase correlation and linewidth reduction of 40 GHz self-pulsation in distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 147–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gatare, I.

J. B. Altes, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gavrielides, A.

P. M. Varangis, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and L. F. Lester, “Linewidth broadening across a dynamical instability,” Phys. Lett. A 250, 117–122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Georges, J. B.

J. B. Georges and K. Y. Lau, “Self-pulsating laser diodes as fast-tunable (≤1 ns) FSK transmitters in subcarrier multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 242–245 (1993).
[Crossref]

Giuliani, G.

M. Zanola, M. J. Strain, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Monolithically integrated DFB lasers for tunable and narrow linewidth millimeter-wave generation,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19, 1500406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Glorieux, P.

T. Erneux and P. Glorieux, Laser Dynamics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010).
[Crossref]

Grillot, F.

L. F. Lester, N. A. Naderi, F. Grillot, R. Raghunathan, and V. Kovanis, “Strong optical injection and the differential gain in a quantum dash laser,” Opt. Express 22, 7222–7228 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Grillot, C. Wang, N. A. Naderi, and J. Even, “Modulation properties of self-injected quantum-dot semiconductor diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900812 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, and L. F. Lester, “Microwave characterization and stabilization of timing jitter in a quantum-dot passively mode-locked laser via external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311–1317 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guan, B. O.

Haelterman, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

Hegarty, S. P.

E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helmy, A. S.

Henning, I. D.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Generation of tunable millimeter-wave and THz signals with an optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5900107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henry, C.

C. Henry, “Phase noise in semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 298–311 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hou, L. P.

Houlihan, J.

O. Carroll, Y. Tanguy, J. Houlihan, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of self-pulsing semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. 239, 429–436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. F.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y. C.

B. Bortnik, Y. C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y. H.

Hurtado, A.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Generation of tunable millimeter-wave and THz signals with an optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5900107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huyet, G.

E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1405–1407 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Carroll, Y. Tanguy, J. Houlihan, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of self-pulsing semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. 239, 429–436 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S. K.

Ih, C. S.

X. Wang, G. F. Li, and C. S. Ih, “Microwave/millimeter-wave frequency subcarrier lightwave modulations based on self-sustained pulsation of laser diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 309–315 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ironside, C. N.

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, J. M. L. Figueiredo, C. N. Ironside, H. I. Cantu, and A. E. Kelly, “Delayed feedback dynamics of Lienard-type resonant tunneling-photo-detector optoelectronic oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 31–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Haji, L. P. Hou, A. E. Kelly, J. Akbar, J. H. Marsh, J. M. Arnold, and C. N. Ironside, “High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes,” Opt. Express 20, 3268–3274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javaloyes, J.

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, J. M. L. Figueiredo, C. N. Ironside, H. I. Cantu, and A. E. Kelly, “Delayed feedback dynamics of Lienard-type resonant tunneling-photo-detector optoelectronic oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 31–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K. Y.

B. Bortnik, Y. C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, L.

Jo, J. H.

J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jo, W. Y. Choi, and H. K. Sung, “Dual-loop dual-modulation optoelectronic oscillators with highly suppressed spurious tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 706–708 (2012).
[Crossref]

Juan, Y. S.

Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kefelian, F.

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1405–1407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

B. Romeira, J. Javaloyes, J. M. L. Figueiredo, C. N. Ironside, H. I. Cantu, and A. E. Kelly, “Delayed feedback dynamics of Lienard-type resonant tunneling-photo-detector optoelectronic oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 31–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Haji, L. P. Hou, A. E. Kelly, J. Akbar, J. H. Marsh, J. M. Arnold, and C. N. Ironside, “High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes,” Opt. Express 20, 3268–3274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, J. H. Jo, W. Y. Choi, and H. K. Sung, “Dual-loop dual-modulation optoelectronic oscillators with highly suppressed spurious tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 706–708 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kiyan, R.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kovanis, V.

L. F. Lester, N. A. Naderi, F. Grillot, R. Raghunathan, and V. Kovanis, “Strong optical injection and the differential gain in a quantum dash laser,” Opt. Express 22, 7222–7228 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Limit-cycle dynamics with reduced sensitivity to perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500807 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pochet, N. A. Naderi, V. Kovanis, and L. F. Lester, “Modeling the dynamic response of an optically-injected nanostructure diode laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 827–833 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. M. Varangis, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and L. F. Lester, “Linewidth broadening across a dynamical instability,” Phys. Lett. A 250, 117–122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Landais, P.

J. Renaudier, G. H. Duan, P. Landais, and P. Gallion, “Phase correlation and linewidth reduction of 40 GHz self-pulsation in distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 147–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. Y.

J. B. Georges and K. Y. Lau, “Self-pulsating laser diodes as fast-tunable (≤1 ns) FSK transmitters in subcarrier multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 242–245 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lawniczuk, K.

Lealman, I. F.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210–217 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. W.

Leijtens, X. J. M.

Lelarge, F.

E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-μ m applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lester, L. F.

L. F. Lester, N. A. Naderi, F. Grillot, R. Raghunathan, and V. Kovanis, “Strong optical injection and the differential gain in a quantum dash laser,” Opt. Express 22, 7222–7228 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Generation of tunable millimeter-wave and THz signals with an optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 5900107 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Raghunathan, R.

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E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
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R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-μ m applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1292–1301 (2011).
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R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-μ m applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1292–1301 (2011).
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Sciamanna, M.

J. B. Altes, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Limit-cycle dynamics with reduced sensitivity to perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
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T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
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E. Sooudi, C. de DiosFernandez, J. G. McInerney, G. Huyet, F. Lelarge, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, and S. P. Hegarty, “A novel scheme for two-level stabilization of semiconductor mode-locked lasers using simultaneous optical injection and optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1101208 (2013).
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R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “Hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loops for photonic terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210–217 (2011).
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Tourrenc, J. P.

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Opt. Express (9)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of an optically injected laser with optical feedback for photonic microwave generation. The black lines indicate the path of optical injection from ML to SL for invoking the P1 oscillation. The gray lines indicate two optional optical feedback paths for reducing the phase noise of the P1 oscillation. SL: slave laser. ML: master laser. PD: photodetector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (i) Optical spectra and (ii) power spectra of the slave laser emission subject to optical injection alone without any feedback. The laser is driven into P1 oscillation at frequency f0 = (a) 10.2 GHz, (b) 18 GHz, (c) 24 GHz, and (d) 60 GHz by using injection parameters (ξi, fi) = (0.03, 4.0 GHz), (0.12, 7.0 GHz), (0.17, 14.2 GHz), and (0.48, 55.5 GHz), respectively. The injection parameters are chosen to maximize the microwave power for each f0. The microwave linewidth Δ f0 is labeled in each power spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microwave linewidth Δ f0 as a contour map of the injection parameters (ξi, fi). The blue contour lines are for the microwave linewidth Δ f0. The gray contour lines are for the P1 oscillation frequency f0. The dashed line indicates the positions for maximal microwave power at any given f0. The yellow dot is the minimal-linewidth point at (ξi, fi) = (0.12, 7.0 GHz) with Δ f0 = 14 MHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (i) Optical spectra and (ii) power spectra of the slave laser emission subject to optical injection with single-loop feedback. The feedback strength ξf = (a) 0.010, (b) 0.026, (c) 0.034, and (d) 0.060. The feedback delay time is fixed at τ = 2.4 ns. The injection parameters are fixed at (ξi, fi) = (0.17, 14.2 GHz). The reduced microwave linewidth Δ f 0 is labeled for each central peak at f0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reduced microwave linewidth Δ f 0 (closed symbols) and microwave power (open symbols) as functions of the single-loop feedback strength ξf. The feedback delay time is fixed at τ = 2.4 ns. The estimations of Δ f 0 with β = 1 (blue) and 1 + b 2 (red) are obtained from Eq. (6). The red curve is the lower-bound of Δ f 0.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reduced microwave linewidth Δ f 0 as a function of the single-loop feedback delay time τ. The feedback strength is fixed at ξf = 0.010. The estimations of Δ f 0 with β = 1 (blue) and 1 + b 2 (red) are obtained from Eq. (6). The red curve is the lower-bound of Δ f 0.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Phase variance as a contour map of the single-loop feedback parameters (ξf, τ).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Power spectra of the slave laser emission subject to optical injection with single-loop feedback (left column) or dual-loop feedback (right column). The feedback strengths (ξf1, ξf2) = (a) (0.010, 0), (b) (0, 0.010), (c) (0.005, 0.005), and (d) (0.017, 0.017). The feedback loops have delays (τ1, τ2) = (17 ns, 20 ns). The injection parameters are fixed at (ξi, fi) = (0.17, 14.2 GHz). The reduced microwave linewidth Δ f 0 is labeled for each central peak at f0.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Phase variance as a function of the total feedback strength ξf. The up- and down-triangles are from single-loop feedback at (ξf1, ξf2) = (ξf, 0) and (0, ξf), respectively. The circles are from dual-loop feedback at (ξf1, ξf2) = (ξf/2, ξf/2). The feedback loops have delay times (τ1, τ2) = (17 ns, 20 ns). The ideal phase variance in blue is deduced from Eq. (6) when the side peaks are ignored.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Phase variance as a function of the feedback strength ratio ξf1:ξf2. The total feedback strength ξf is fixed at 0.010, 0.020, and 0.035 as labeled. The feedback loops have delay times (τ1, τ2) = (17 ns, 20 ns).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Phase variance as a map of the dual-loop feedback delay times (τ1, τ2). The feedback strengths are kept at ξf1 = ξf2 = 0.010.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Phase variance as a function of (a) P1 oscillation frequency f0 and (b) free-running slave laser linewidth Δν. The laser is subject to optical injection with no feedback (triangles), single-loop feedback (squares), and dual-loop feedback (circles).

Equations (6)

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d a d t = 1 i b 2 [ γ c γ n γ s J ˜ n ˜ γ p ( | a | 2 1 ) ] a + ξ i γ c e i 2 π f i t + f + ξ f 1 γ c a ( t τ 1 ) + ξ f 2 γ c a ( t τ 2 ) ,
d n ˜ d t = ( γ s + γ n | a | 2 ) n ˜ γ s J ˜ ( 1 γ p γ c | a | 2 ) ( | a | 2 1 ) ,
< f ( t ) f ( t ) > = 4 π Δ v 1 + b 2 δ ( t t ) ,
< f ( t ) f ( t ) > = 0 ,
< f ( t ) > = 0.
Δ f 0 Δ f 0 ( 1 + β γ c τ ξ f ) 2 ,

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