Abstract

In this manuscript we discuss state of the art hybrid integration techniques and III-V/Si active components with an emphasis on hybrid distributed feedback (DFB) lasers for telecom applications. We review our work on ultra-compact III-V/Si DFB lasers and further describe design considerations and challenges associated with electrically pumped hybrid lasers. We conclude with a perspective on DFB lasers with extremely small footprint, a direction for future research with potential applications to densely-packed optical interconnects.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (11)

Q. Gu, J. S. T. Smalley, M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, J. H. Lee, M. Katz, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Subwavelength semiconductor lasers for dense chip-scale integration,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 1 (2014).
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L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
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G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-Based Photonic Integration Beyond the Telecommunication Wavelength Range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 394–404 (2014).

T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
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C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, Y. Vilenchik, A. Vasilyev, and A. Yariv, “High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high-Q resonators in hybrid Si/III-V platforms,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(8), 2879–2884 (2014).
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G.-H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepvre, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III–V on Silicon Lasers for Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 158–170 (2014).
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J. S. T. Smalley, Q. Gu, and Y. Fainman, “Temperature Dependence of the Spontaneous Emission Factor in Subwavelength Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(3), 175–185 (2014).
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J. Hämäläinen, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Noble Metals and Their Oxides,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 786–801 (2014).
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L. Tao, L. Yuan, Y. Li, H. Yu, B. Wang, Q. Kan, W. Chen, J. Pan, G. Ran, and W. Wang, “4-λ InGaAsP-Si distributed feedback evanescent lasers with varying silicon waveguide width,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5448–5454 (2014).
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J. H. Lee, I. Shubin, J. Yao, J. Bickford, Y. Luo, S. Lin, S. S. Djordjevic, H. D. Thacker, J. E. Cunningham, K. Raj, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High power and widely tunable Si hybrid external-cavity laser for power efficient Si photonics WDM links,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7678–7685 (2014).
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J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, B. Kanté, and Y. Fainman, “Modal amplification in active waveguides with hyperbolic dispersion at telecommunication frequencies,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21088–21105 (2014).
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2013 (16)

S. Huang, W. Lu, C. Li, W. Huang, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “A CMOS-compatible approach to fabricate an ultra-thin germanium-on-insulator with large tensile strain for Si-based light emission,” Opt. Express 21(1), 640–646 (2013).
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Y. Zhang, H. Qu, H. Wang, S. Zhang, L. Liu, S. Ma, and W. Zheng, “A hybrid silicon single mode laser with a slotted feedback structure,” Opt. Express 21(1), 877–883 (2013).
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S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
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D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de)multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1422–1424 (2013).
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F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and B. J. Offrein, “Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11652–11658 (2013).
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S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. S. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express 21(12), 13958–13968 (2013).
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S. V. Zhukovsky, O. Kidwai, and J. E. Sipe, “Physical nature of volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14982–14987 (2013).
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Y. de Koninck, F. Raineri, A. Bazin, R. Raj, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Experimental demonstration of a hybrid III-V-on-silicon microlaser based on resonant grating cavity mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2496–2498 (2013).
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K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, T. Tsuritani, H. Takahashi, S. Sumita, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, M. Tadakuma, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “110.9-Tbit/s SDM transmission over 6,370 km using a full C-band seven-core EDFA,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18053–18060 (2013).
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M. Casalino, M. Iodice, L. Sirleto, I. Rendina, and G. Coppola, “Asymmetric MSM sub-bandgap all-silicon photodetector with low dark current,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28072–28082 (2013).
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J. S. T. Smalley, M. W. Puckett, and Y. Fainman, “Invariance of optimal composite waveguide geometries with respect to permittivity of the metal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5161–5164 (2013).
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M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
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M. Cantoro, C. Merckling, S. Jiang, W. Guo, N. Waldron, H. Bender, A. Moussa, B. Douhard, W. Vandervorst, M. M. Heyns, J. Dekoster, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Heteroepitaxy of III-V Compound Semiconductors on Silicon for Logic Applications: Selective Area Epitaxy in Shallow Trench Isolation Structures vs. Direct Epitaxy Mediated by Strain Relaxed Buffers,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 349–355 (2013).
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O. Bondarenko, Q. Gu, J. Shane, A. Simic, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded distributed feedback laser with sidewall modulated Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043105 (2013).
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A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
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F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
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2012 (13)

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31–s42 (2012).
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M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
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S. Stankovic, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Hybrid III–V/Si Distributed-Feedback Laser Based on Adhesive Bonding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2155–2158 (2012).
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S. Lourdudoss, “Heteroepitaxy and selective area heteroepitaxy for silicon photonics,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 16(2), 91–99 (2012).
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C.-W. Hsu, Y.-F. Chen, and Y.-K. Su, “Heteroepitaxy for GaAs on Nanopatterned Si (001),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1009–1011 (2012).
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M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. de Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. H. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
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K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B 85(4), 041301 (2012).
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C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 14(6), 063001 (2012).
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R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
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A. Lee, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Continuous-wave InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diodes monolithically grown on Si substrate with low threshold current densities,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22181–22187 (2012).
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A. J. Zilkie, P. Seddighian, B. J. Bijlani, W. Qian, D. C. Lee, S. Fathololoumi, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, B. J. Luff, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Power-efficient III-V/silicon external cavity DBR lasers,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23456–23462 (2012).
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S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Sekiguchi, T. Kurahashi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28057–28069 (2012).
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G. de Valicourt, A. Le Liepvre, F. Vacondio, C. Simonneau, M. Lamponi, C. Jany, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, D. Make, F. Poingt, G. H. Duan, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, L. Lorcy, J.-C. Antona, and S. Bigo, “Directly modulated and fully tunable hybrid silicon lasers for future generation of coherent colorless ONU,” Opt. Express 20(26), B552–B557 (2012).
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2011 (7)

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, G. Roelkens, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, and F. Raineri, “Hybrid III-V semiconductor/silicon nanolaser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9221–9231 (2011).
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J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
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C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
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G. Kurczveil, M. J. Heck, J. D. Peters, J. M. Garcia, D. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “An Integrated Hybrid Silicon Multiwavelength AWG Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1521–1527 (2011).
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L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
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R. Chen, T.-T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
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O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer Bonded Subwavelength Metallo-Dielectric Laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 608–616 (2011).
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2010 (7)

2009 (3)

J. W. Chung, E. L. Piner, and T. Palacios, “Seamless On-Wafer Integration of Si(100) MOSFETs and GaN HEMTs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1015–1017 (2009).
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D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-Quality 150,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H101 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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2008 (3)

D. Liang, A. W. Fang, H. Park, T. E. Reynolds, K. Warner, D. C. Oakley, and J. E. Bowers, “Low-Temperature, Strong SiO2-SiO2 Covalent Wafer Bonding for III–V Compound Semiconductors-to-Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(10), 1552–1559 (2008).
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A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4413–4419 (2008).
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A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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2007 (2)

2006 (6)

2005 (2)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
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O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 13(3), 796–800 (2005).
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2002 (1)

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, “Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 118–131 (2002).
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1999 (1)

P. Abraham, J. Piprek, S. P. DenBaars, and J. E. Bowers, “Improvement of Internal Quantum Efficiency in 1.55 µm Laser Diodes with InGaP Electron Stopper Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 2B), 1239–1242 (1999).
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1998 (1)

M. A. Schmidt, “Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation,” Proc. IEEE 86(8), 1575–1585 (1998).
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1997 (2)

T. R. Chung, L. Yang, N. Hosoda, and T. Suga, “Room temperature GaAs-Si and InP-Si wafer direct bonding by the surface activated bonding method,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 121(1-4), 203–206 (1997).
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R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Low-temperature intermediate Au-Si wafer bonding; eutectic or silicide bond,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 62(1-3), 680–686 (1997).
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1994 (1)

R. F. Wolffenbuttel and K. D. Wise, “Low-temperature silicon wafer-to-wafer bonding using gold at eutectic temperature,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 43(1-3), 223–229 (1994).
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1984 (1)

M. Yamanishi and I. Suemune, “Comment on Polarization Dependent Momentum Matrix Elements in Quantum Well Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L35–L36 (1984).
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Abraham, P.

P. Abraham, J. Piprek, S. P. DenBaars, and J. E. Bowers, “Improvement of Internal Quantum Efficiency in 1.55 µm Laser Diodes with InGaP Electron Stopper Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 2B), 1239–1242 (1999).
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Accard, A.

G.-H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepvre, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III–V on Silicon Lasers for Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 158–170 (2014).
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G. de Valicourt, A. Le Liepvre, F. Vacondio, C. Simonneau, M. Lamponi, C. Jany, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, D. Make, F. Poingt, G. H. Duan, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, L. Lorcy, J.-C. Antona, and S. Bigo, “Directly modulated and fully tunable hybrid silicon lasers for future generation of coherent colorless ONU,” Opt. Express 20(26), B552–B557 (2012).
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Alam, S.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high Capacity Transmission with Few-mode Silica and Hollow-core Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), p. Tu2J.3.
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Antona, J.-C.

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
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Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Awaji, Y.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, P. Winzer, D. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s31–s42 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, D.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
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Baddela, N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
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V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high Capacity Transmission with Few-mode Silica and Hollow-core Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), p. Tu2J.3.
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Baets, R.

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basak, J.

Bauters, J. F.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
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Ben Bakir, B.

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Q. Gu, J. S. T. Smalley, M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, J. H. Lee, M. Katz, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Subwavelength semiconductor lasers for dense chip-scale integration,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(1), 1 (2014).
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M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
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T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
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M. Cantoro, C. Merckling, S. Jiang, W. Guo, N. Waldron, H. Bender, A. Moussa, B. Douhard, W. Vandervorst, M. M. Heyns, J. Dekoster, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Heteroepitaxy of III-V Compound Semiconductors on Silicon for Logic Applications: Selective Area Epitaxy in Shallow Trench Isolation Structures vs. Direct Epitaxy Mediated by Strain Relaxed Buffers,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 349–355 (2013).
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V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high Capacity Transmission with Few-mode Silica and Hollow-core Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), p. Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Cisco white paper, The Zettabyte Era—Trends and Analysis (Cisco, 2014), http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.pdf .

MIT Microphotonics Center white paper, Scaling Limits for Copper Interconnects (MIT Microphotonics Center, 2011), https://mphotonics.mit.edu/docman/ctr/ctr-3/427-scaling-copper-2011/file .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a sidewall modulated DFB laser, top view; Simulated (b) Ex component and (c) Ez component of the fundamental TE-like mode for a 500nm wide and 550nm tall III-V/Si waveguide with 250nm silicon layer, 300nm InGaAsP layer; (d) Light-light curve of a fabricated optically pumped device (the same data in logarithmic scale – bottom right inset, SEM image of the hybrid grating is on the upper left inset).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematics of the III-V epitaxial layers bonded to Si for an electrically pumped laser. (b) Schematics of the simulation domains. (c) Normalized electromagnetic field for InGaAsP-n = 125nm and InP-n = 200nm and (d) InGaAsP-n = 20nm and InP-n = 20nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three different taper designs for coupling the electromagnetic mode from the III-V/Si composite waveguide to the silicon waveguide. (a) - (c), (d) – (f) and (g) – (j) are the mode profiles in different cross-sections of the mentioned tapers, indicated by the dashed lines, for Design I, II and III, respectively. The 3D tapers were simulated on thin bonding layer, but (j) also shows the result for a thicker bond layer. The red arrow indicates the direction of tapering the waveguide to follow the corresponding mode profile evolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Power profile of the 3D taper with a thin bonding layer. The thicknesses of the gain media, bonding layer and silicon waveguide are 400nm, 40nm and 250nm respectively and the 3D taper is 15μm long. Coupling efficiencies for (b) different bonding layer thicknesses and taper shapes combinations; and (c) different taper lengths for a thin bonding layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM pictures of ion-milled test structures: (a) 500nm wide and 550nm thick silicon waveguide with HSQ mask on top after 45 min; (b) InGaAsP/Si test structures of variable width with 250nm thick Si bottom layer and 300nm thick InGaAsP top layer after 45 min.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of in-plane InGaAsP/Metal HMM, (a) without and (b) with periodic modulation of the waveguide width. For the modulated case, one-and-a half wavelength-scale periods are shown. Inset shows electric field distribution (|E|) of the lowest order TM mode in a Ag/InGaAsP square waveguide (w1 = h = 100nm) on silicon in the effective medium limit.

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