Abstract

The performance of a 665-nm GaInP disk laser operated continuous-wave at 15°C both in-well-pumped at 640 nm and barrier pumped at 532 nm is reported. The efficiency with respect to the absorbed power was enhanced by 3.5 times when using a 640-nm pump instead of a 532-nm pump. In-well pumping which is based on the absorption of the pump photons within the quantum-well heterostructures of the gain region instead of short-wavelength absorption in the barrier and spacer regions reduces the quantum defect between pump and laser photon and hence the heat generation. A slope efficiency of 60% with respect to the absorbed pump power was obtained by in-well pumping at 15°C. Continuous-wave laser operation was further demonstrated at heat sink temperatures of up to 55°C. Both the measurement of photoluminescence and COMSOL simulation show that the overall heat load in the in-well pumped laser is smaller than in the barrier-pumped laser. These results demonstrate the potential of optical in-well pumping for the operation of red AlGaInP disk lasers if combined with means for efficient pump-light absorption.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
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    [Crossref]
  4. B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, “Continuous-wave room-temperature operation of a 2.8 μm GaSb-based semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 319–321 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E. Kantola, T. Leinonen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, and M. Guina, “High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6372–6380 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).
  7. H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).
  8. M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. I. Müller, C. Karnutsch, J. Luft, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, N. Linder, S. S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, A. Giesen, and G. H. Döhler, “Optically pumped vertical external cavity semiconductor thin-disk laser with CW operation at 660nm,” in Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, (IOP Publishing Ltd., 2003), pp. 427–430.
  10. J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, and M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).
  14. R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

E. Kantola, T. Leinonen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, and M. Guina, “High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6372–6380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

2013 (1)

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

2012 (1)

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, “Continuous-wave room-temperature operation of a 2.8 μm GaSb-based semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 319–321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

2005 (2)

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, and M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abram, R.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ackemann, T.

Ballmann, T.

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bek, R.

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

Benchabane, S.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beyertt, S. S.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beyertt, S.-S.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brauch, U.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Burns, D.

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

Butendeich, R.

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Calvez, S.

Dawson, M. D.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, and M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
[Crossref]

Demaria, F.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dhidah, N.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dohler, G. H.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eichfelder, M.

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

Giesen, A.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

Hader, J.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hargart, F.

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

Hastie, J. E.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, and M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heinen, B.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heldmaier, M.

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

Hopkins, J.-M.

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jetter, M.

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kahle, H.

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

Kantola, E.

Karnutsch, C.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kaspar, S.

Kemp, A. J.

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

Kessler, C. A.

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

Koch, M.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Köhler, K.

Koroknay, E.

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

Krysa, A. B.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kübler, T.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kunert, B.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laakso, A.

Leinonen, T.

Linder, N.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lorch, S.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luft, J.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lyytikäinen, J.

Manz, C.

McGinily, S.

Mclean, A. J.

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

Michler, P.

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Morton, L. G.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moser, R.

Müller, M. I.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pessa, M.

Raabe, B.

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ranta, S.

Rattunde, M.

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, “Continuous-wave room-temperature operation of a 2.8 μm GaSb-based semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 319–321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

Riis, E.

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rinaldi, F.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roberts, J. S.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rösener, B.

Roßbach, R.

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rossbach, R.

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmid, W.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scholz, F.

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schulz, N.

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schulz, W.-M.

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schwarzbäck, T.

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, H.

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sparenberg, M.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stolz, W.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Streubel, K.

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tavast, M.

Töpper, T.

Torabi-Goudarzi, F.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tränkle, G.

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Unger, P.

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, R. Moser, S. Kaspar, T. Töpper, C. Manz, K. Köhler, and J. Wagner, “Continuous-wave room-temperature operation of a 2.8 μm GaSb-based semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 319–321 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. L.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weber, A.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, H.

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zorn, M.

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Schwarzbäck, M. Eichfelder, W.-M. Schulz, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Short wavelength red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSEL exceeds 1.2W continuous-wave output power,” Appl. Phys. B 102(4), 789–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Kahle, R. Bek, M. Heldmaier, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High optical output power in the UVA range of a frequency-doubled, strain-compensated AlGaInP-VECSEL,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(092705), 1–4 (2014).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intra-cavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(061114), 1–3 (2006).

T. Schwarzbäck, R. Bek, F. Hargart, C. A. Kessler, H. Kahle, E. Koroknay, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “High-power InP quantum dot based semiconductor disk laser exceeding 1.3W,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(092101), 1–4 (2013).

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Rossbach, R. Butendeich, T. Ballmann, B. Raabe, M. Jetter, H. Schweizer, and F. Scholz, “160°C pulsed laser operation of AlGaInP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1654 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous wave output power from a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S.-S. Beyertt, M. Zorn, T. Kübler, H. Wenzel, M. Weyers, A. Giesen, G. Tränkle, and U. Brauch, “Optical In-Well Pumping of a Semiconductor Disk Laser With High Optical Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1439–1449 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kemp, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Mclean, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, and D. Burns, “Thermal management in 2.3-µm Semiconductor Disk Lasers: A Finite Element Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(2), 125–135 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, F. Demaria, N. Dhidah, A. Giesen, T. Kübler, S. Lorch, F. Rinaldi, and P. Unger, “Efficient gallium-arsenide disk laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 869–875 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. I. Müller, N. Linder, C. Karnutsch, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, J. Luft, S. S. Beyertt, A. Giesen, and G. H. Dohler, “Optically pumped semiconductor thin-disk laser with external cavity operating at 660nm,” Proc. SPIE 4649, 265–271 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. I. Müller, C. Karnutsch, J. Luft, W. Schmid, K. Streubel, N. Linder, S. S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, A. Giesen, and G. H. Döhler, “Optically pumped vertical external cavity semiconductor thin-disk laser with CW operation at 660nm,” in Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, (IOP Publishing Ltd., 2003), pp. 427–430.

O. G. Okhotnikov, ed., Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

L. G. Morton, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “1W CW red VECSEL frequency-doubled to generate 60mW in the ultraviolet,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), JWB16 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the VECSEL in a linear resonator configuration with intra-cavity diamond heat spreader. The GaInP based VECSEL emits at 665nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical output power versus the (a) incident and (b) absorbed pump power for the GaInP-VECSEL operated at 15°C for 640-nm pumping (circles) and 532-nm pumping (stars).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical output power versus absorbed 640-nm pump power for different heat sink temperatures. The inset shows the absorbed pump power at the laser threshold (blue) and slope efficiency relative to the absorbed pump power (red) versus the heat sink temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependent photoluminescence of the GaInP VECSEL, pumped at 640 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logarithmic plot of the normalized power dependent photoluminescence of the (a) barrier- and (b) in-well-pumped VECSEL. The black curves correspond to the PL at a very small pumping power. For clarity, an offset has been added to the green pumped PL curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Central wavelength of the laser emission at different absorbed pump powers for the (a) barrier- and (b) in-well pumped VECSEL both operated at a heat sink temperature of 15°C, and the (c) in-well pumped VECSEL operated at a heat-sink temperature of 55°C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross sections visualizing the geometry of the active region assumed for modeling the (a) barrier-pumped and (b) QW-pumped VECSEL. Barrier pumped, the gain region is treated as homogeneous while QW pumped, the RPG structure is resolved into 5 QW/barrier/spacer packages.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

VECSEL’s temperature rise distribution from the ambient when pumped with (a) 532 nm and (b) 640 nm pump source and with 1 W absorbed pump power. Shown is a cross section through the disk from the center to the 1/e2 point of the pump power distribution. The active layer is near z = 256 µm with the diamond above, and the DBR and the substrate below it. Note that the temperature scales in (a) and (b) differ by a factor of 10.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

VECSEL’S cross sectional temperature increase distribution at the center of the disk (r = 0) with respect to the axial position, when pumped with 532 nm (dashed curve) and 640 nm (solid curve) pump source and with 1 W absorbed pump power. Note that the temperature scales differ by a factor of 10.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured average temperature increase based on the spectral shift of the DBR oscillation plotted against the absorbed power and the absorbed power density for barrier pumping (green triangles and dotted green line fit) and QW pumping (red circles) Additionally, the COMSOL-calculated average temperature increase in the DBR region is shown. In order to match with the measurement data at the threshold, offsets of 10.5 K and 4 K have been added to the calculated data for the barrier-pumped (green solid line) and in-well-pumped (red dashed line) VECSEL, respectively. The dash-dotted blue line shows the temperature rise up to the threshold if it is assumed that below threshold 90% of the absorbed power is converted into heat at or very close to the pump spot.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Laser output versus incident pump power of the in-well pumped VECSEL at 15°C heat-sink temperature both for operation with (circles) and without (triangles) pump recycling.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Constants used in the simulation for barrier-pumped VECSEL.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Constants used in the simulation of the in-well-pumped VECSEL.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated maximum and weighted average temperature increase in the gain and DBR region of the in-well- and barrier-pumped GaInP disk laser for an absorbed pump power of 1W.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q g inc ( r,z )= 2 η defect P 0 α g π w 2 ×exp( 2 r 2 w 2 α g ( z 0g z ) )
Q d ( r,z )= 2 η d P α d π w 2 ×exp( 2 r 2 w 2 α d ( z 0d z ) α g t g )
η defect =1 λ pump λ emission .
Q g Q W 1 inc ( r,z )= 2 η defect P 1 α g π w 2 exp( 2 r 2 w 2 )exp( α g ( z 0g,1 z ) ) Q g Q W n inc ( r,z )= 2 η defect P n inc α g π w 2 exp( 2 r 2 w 2 )exp( α g ( z 0g,n z ) )
Q g Q W n ref ( r,z )= 2 η defect P n refl α g π w 2 exp( 2 r 2 w 2 )exp( α g ( z z g,n ) ) Q g Q W 1 ref ( r,z )= 2 η defect P 1 refl α g π w 2 exp( 2 r 2 w 2 )exp( α g ( z z g,1 ) )
P n inc = P 1 exp[ (n1) α g 4 t QW ]
P n refl = P 1 exp[ (10n) α g 4 t QW ]
Q g Q W n sum (r,z)= Q g Q W n inc (r,z)+ Q g Q W n ref (r,z).
Δ T r,z ¯ = gain ΔT(r,z) e 2 r 2 w 2 e α g ( z 0g z) dV gain e 2 r 2 w 2 e α g ( z 0g z) dV
Δ T r ¯ = gain ΔT(r,z) e 2 r 2 w 2 dV gain e 2 r 2 w 2 dV .
Δ T r,z ¯ = gain ΔT(r,z) e 2 r 2 w 2 e z l c dV gain e 2 r 2 w 2 e z l c dV .

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