Abstract

We theoretically study the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure based ultrathin broadband optical absorber which consists of a metallic substrate, a dielectric middle layer, and a nanostructured metallic top layer. It is found that, there exists an effective permittivity, εnull, for the top nanostructured metallic layer which leads to unit-absorption (zero-reflection) of the MIM structure. Importantly, this εnull exhibits abnormal dispersion behaviors. Both its real and imaginary parts increase monotonically with the wavelength. To obtain such naturally non-existing permittivity, we investigate the optical properties of two typical types of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, namely, thoroughly mingled composites using Bruggeman’s effective medium theory, and more realistic Au nanosphere-in-dielectric structures using numerical permittivity retrieval techniques. We demonstrate that the εnull-type dispersions, and consequently, perfect absorption can be obtained over a broad spectral range when the filling factor of the metal component is close to the percolation threshold. The result not only explains the recently reported broadband absorbers made of randomly deposited Au nanoparticles [M. K. Hedayati, et al, Adv. Mater. 23, 5410 (2011)], but also provides theoretical guidelines for designing ultrathin broadband plasmonic absorbers for a wealthy of important applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-Ideal Optical Metamaterial Absorbers with Super-Octave Bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity Enhancement for Ultra-Thin Film Optical Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(17), 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yan, J. Dai, and M. Qiu, “Lithography-free broadband visible light absorber based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles,” J. Opt. 16(2), 9 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (5)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Elbahri, S. Homaeigohar, R. Abdelaziz, T. H. Dai, R. Khalil, and A. U. Zillohu, “Smart Metal-Polymer Bionanocomposites as Omnidirectional Plasmonic Black Absorber Formed by Nanofluid Filtration,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4771–4777 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green and S. Pillai, “Harnessing plasmonics for solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 130–132 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat Commun 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the Blackbody with Infrared Metamaterials as Selective Thermal Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lehman, A. Sanders, L. Hanssen, B. Wilthan, J. N. Zeng, and C. Jensen, “Very Black Infrared Detector from Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Electric-Field Poling of Lithium Tantalate,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3261–3266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S. Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire Arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. McLean, K. A. Stumpo, and D. H. Russell, “Size-selected (2-10 nm) gold nanoparticles for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of peptides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(15), 5304–5305 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Teperik, V. Popov, and F. García de Abajo, “Void plasmons and total absorption of light in nanoporous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085408 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

K. N. Rozanov, “Ultimate Thickness to Bandwidth Ratio of Radar Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(8), 1230–1234 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber, “A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires,” Science 279(5348), 208–211 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

G. W. Milton, “Bounds on the complex dielectric-constant of a composite-material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 300–302 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. J. Bergman, “Exactly solvable microscopic geometries and rigorous bounds for the complex dielectric-constant of a 2-component composite-material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44(19), 1285–1287 (1980).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Calculation of various physics constants in heterogenous substances I. Dielectricity constants and conductivity of mixed bodies from isotropic substances,” Annalen Der Physik 24, 636–664 (1935).
[Crossref]

Abdelaziz, R.

M. Elbahri, S. Homaeigohar, R. Abdelaziz, T. H. Dai, R. Khalil, and A. U. Zillohu, “Smart Metal-Polymer Bionanocomposites as Omnidirectional Plasmonic Black Absorber Formed by Nanofluid Filtration,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4771–4777 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S. Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbara, A.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat Commun 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman, “Exactly solvable microscopic geometries and rigorous bounds for the complex dielectric-constant of a 2-component composite-material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44(19), 1285–1287 (1980).
[Crossref]

Borisov, A. G.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bossard, J. A.

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-Ideal Optical Metamaterial Absorbers with Super-Octave Bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat Commun 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Calculation of various physics constants in heterogenous substances I. Dielectricity constants and conductivity of mixed bodies from isotropic substances,” Annalen Der Physik 24, 636–664 (1935).
[Crossref]

Bur, J. A.

Z. P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S. Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakravadhanula, V. S.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire Arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

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X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the Blackbody with Infrared Metamaterials as Selective Thermal Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedersen, K.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat Commun 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pillai, S.

M. A. Green and S. Pillai, “Harnessing plasmonics for solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 130–132 (2012).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, V.

T. Teperik, V. Popov, and F. García de Abajo, “Void plasmons and total absorption of light in nanoporous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

M. Yan, J. Dai, and M. Qiu, “Lithography-free broadband visible light absorber based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles,” J. Opt. 16(2), 9 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Meng, D. Zhao, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, “Polarization-sensitive perfect absorbers at near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(S1), A111–A122 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quémerais, P.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ran, L.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozanov, K. N.

K. N. Rozanov, “Ultimate Thickness to Bandwidth Ratio of Radar Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(8), 1230–1234 (2000).
[Crossref]

Russell, D. H.

J. A. McLean, K. A. Stumpo, and D. H. Russell, “Size-selected (2-10 nm) gold nanoparticles for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of peptides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(15), 5304–5305 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, A.

J. Lehman, A. Sanders, L. Hanssen, B. Wilthan, J. N. Zeng, and C. Jensen, “Very Black Infrared Detector from Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Electric-Field Poling of Lithium Tantalate,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3261–3266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat Commun 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, H.

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity Enhancement for Ultra-Thin Film Optical Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(17), 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the Blackbody with Infrared Metamaterials as Selective Thermal Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the Blackbody with Infrared Metamaterials as Selective Thermal Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strunkus, T.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stumpo, K. A.

J. A. McLean, K. A. Stumpo, and D. H. Russell, “Size-selected (2-10 nm) gold nanoparticles for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of peptides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(15), 5304–5305 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugawara, Y.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tavassolizadeh, A.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teperik, T.

T. Teperik, V. Popov, and F. García de Abajo, “Void plasmons and total absorption of light in nanoporous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Teperik, T. V.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the Blackbody with Infrared Metamaterials as Selective Thermal Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weiner, B.

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-Ideal Optical Metamaterial Absorbers with Super-Octave Bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
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I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index of refraction in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2592–2594 (2006).
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J. Lehman, A. Sanders, L. Hanssen, B. Wilthan, J. N. Zeng, and C. Jensen, “Very Black Infrared Detector from Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Electric-Field Poling of Lithium Tantalate,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3261–3266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y. Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, J. Dai, and M. Qiu, “Lithography-free broadband visible light absorber based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles,” J. Opt. 16(2), 9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, P. D.

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. P.

Z. P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S. Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, D.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-Ideal Optical Metamaterial Absorbers with Super-Octave Bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaporojtchenko, V.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, J. N.

J. Lehman, A. Sanders, L. Hanssen, B. Wilthan, J. N. Zeng, and C. Jensen, “Very Black Infrared Detector from Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Electric-Field Poling of Lithium Tantalate,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3261–3266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity Enhancement for Ultra-Thin Film Optical Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(17), 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity Enhancement for Ultra-Thin Film Optical Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(17), 2737–2743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zillohu, A. U.

M. Elbahri, S. Homaeigohar, R. Abdelaziz, T. H. Dai, R. Khalil, and A. U. Zillohu, “Smart Metal-Polymer Bionanocomposites as Omnidirectional Plasmonic Black Absorber Formed by Nanofluid Filtration,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4771–4777 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-Ideal Optical Metamaterial Absorbers with Super-Octave Bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Elbahri, S. Homaeigohar, R. Abdelaziz, T. H. Dai, R. Khalil, and A. U. Zillohu, “Smart Metal-Polymer Bionanocomposites as Omnidirectional Plasmonic Black Absorber Formed by Nanofluid Filtration,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(22), 4771–4777 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a Perfect Black Absorber at Visible Frequencies Using Plasmonic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Song, L. Guo, Z. Liu, K. Liu, X. Zeng, D. Ji, N. Zhang, H. Hu, S. Jiang, and Q. Gan, “Nanocavity Enhancement for Ultra-Thin Film Optical Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(17), 2737–2743 (2014).
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J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

K. N. Rozanov, “Ultimate Thickness to Bandwidth Ratio of Radar Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(8), 1230–1234 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. A. McLean, K. A. Stumpo, and D. H. Russell, “Size-selected (2-10 nm) gold nanoparticles for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of peptides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(15), 5304–5305 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

M. Yan, J. Dai, and M. Qiu, “Lithography-free broadband visible light absorber based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles,” J. Opt. 16(2), 9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (8)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire Arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S. Y. Lin, and P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 446–451 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lehman, A. Sanders, L. Hanssen, B. Wilthan, J. N. Zeng, and C. Jensen, “Very Black Infrared Detector from Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Electric-Field Poling of Lithium Tantalate,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3261–3266 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (2)

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat Commun 3, 969 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. V. Teperik, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green and S. Pillai, “Harnessing plasmonics for solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 130–132 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Teperik, V. Popov, and F. García de Abajo, “Void plasmons and total absorption of light in nanoporous metallic films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
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D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the Blackbody with Infrared Metamaterials as Selective Thermal Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Sketch of a model MIM structure. (b) Reflection, R, as a function of Re(εtop) and Im(εtop) at 500 nm. Here, dtop = dmid = 20 nm, and εmid = 2.25. (c) Reflection map of the MIM structure at different wavelengths (from 400 nm to 800 nm). (d) Zero-reflection permittivity, εnull, as a function of wavelength. Here, “×” labels the zero-reflection points εnull, and “+” marks the center of the reflectivity isolines, εc(R) at R = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) shows the spectra of Re(εnull) and Im(εnull) with varied dtop (10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm, 40 nm and 50 nm), respectively. Here, dmid = 20 nm, εmid = 2.25. (c) and (d) depicts the spectra of Re(εnull) and Im (εnull) with different dmid (0 nm, 15 nm, 30 nm, 45 nm, and 60 nm),respectively. Here, dtop = 20 nm, εmid = 2.25. (e) and (f) shows the spectra of Re(εnull) and Im(εnull) with varied εmid = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. Here, dtop = 20 nm, dmid = 20 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Permittivity spectra by Lorentzian model. (b,c) Calculated effective permittivity spectrum maps of metal-dielectric nanocomposite at different filling factors by effective medium theory. (d) Real (solid line) and imaginary (dash line) parts of effective permittivity as a function of wavelength. The green, blue and red color denotes filling factors of 0.21, 0.33, and 0.50 (i.e., larger than, equal to, and smaller than the percolation threshold), respectively. (e) Calculated absorbance spectrum map at different filling factors. Here, dtop = 50 nm, dmid = 30 nm, εmid = 2.25. (f) Calculated absorbance spectra of a MIM structure different filling factors (0.10, 0.33, and 0.70).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Real (solid line) and imaginary (dash line) parts of effective permittivity spectra with εdie = 2, 5, and 8 and fm = 0.33.(b) Calculated absorbance of a MIM structure with different εdie (2, 5, and 8). Here, dtop = 50 nm, dmid = 30 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Sketch of periodic ANID consisting of a 3D array of Au nanospheres (D = 5 nm) embedded in SiO2 matrix (n = 1.5). (b) Effective permittivity of ANIDs with fm = 0.23, 0.52, and 0.70. (c-d) Retrieved effective permittivity of ANIDs material at different wavelengths and different filling factors. (e) Absorbance of the MIM structure constructed with ANID, and dtop = dmid = 20 nm, εmid = 2.25. (f) Absorbance spectra of the discrepancy structure with different filling factors (fm = 0.23, 0.52, and 0.70).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Real and (b) imaginary part of the ANID material with different nanosphere diameters, (i.e., 5 nm and 10 nm) and same filling factor fm = 52%
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a, b) Numerically retrieved real and imaginary part of the effective permittivity of an ANID material made of randomly arranged Au NPs. (c,d) Numerically calculated effective permittivity at percolation threshold of ideal Bruggeman’s MDC, periodic ANID, and random ANID.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Real and (b) imaginary part of effective permittivity of MDC with different metallic materials (i.e., Au, Ag and Cu) calculated using the EMT.

Equations (2)

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ε(ω)=1+ S ω res 2 ω res 2 ω 2 iωγ
ε eff = 1 4 ( ( 3 f m 1 ) ε m +( 3 f d 1 ) ε d ± ( ( 3 f m 1 ) ε m +( 3 f d 1 ) ε d ) 2 +8 ε m ε d )

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